gui booter 1-3 2-4 betting system

crap bets on carnival cruise

Bitcoin Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for Bitcoin crypto-currency enthusiasts. It only takes a minute to sign up. I'm very new to the concept of Bitcoin having only just read the wikipedia entry and visited bitcoin. When CPU mining was common gaming consoles did provide comparable performance. There was some development work for xbox and PS3.

Gui booter 1-3 2-4 betting system spread betting forum ftse4good

Gui booter 1-3 2-4 betting system

The wells were instrumented with pressure transducers starting in Aug. The observation period includes the 3 Sep Mw5. Previous studies have suggested the Mw5. Here, we use the water level response to solid Earth tides to estimate permeability and specific storage through time during the observation period.

We measure the phase lag between the solid Earth tide and the water level changes and find that phase lag between the Earth tide and aquifer response decreases at the time of the Mw5. Our results suggest permeability increased in the Arbuckle Group after the earthquake by a factor of 5.

It is possible that in extreme cases there may be complex interaction between saltwater disposal, hydrologic systems , and earthquake rates that should be considered to better understand seismic hazard. High resolution strain sensor for earthquake precursor observation and earthquake monitoring. This sensor is used for crust deformation measurement, which plays an important role in earthquake precursor observation. A demodulation algorithm based on wavelet domain cross-correlation is used to calculate the wavelength difference.

The reference FBG-FP is placed in a strain-free state closely to compensate the environment temperature fluctuation. A static-strain resolution of 1. As a result, clear solid tide signals and seismic signals can be recorded, which suggests that the proposed strain sensor can be applied to earthquake precursor observation and earthquake monitoring. An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night.

If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning EQW developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems , and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes.

This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate sps triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor.

Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from M L 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms.

We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW. Coseismic and initial postseismic deformation from the Parkfield, California, earthquake , observed by global positioning system , electronic distance meter, creepmeters, and borehole strainmeters. Consequently, fault-slip models using daily solutions overestimate coseismic slip.

In addition, at 2 months and at 8 months following the mainshock, postseismic displacements are modeled as slip on the San Andreas fault with a lower bound on the moment exceeding that of the coseismic moment. Research on deformation precursors of earthquakes was of immediate interest from the middle to the end of the previous century.

The repeated conventional geodetic measurements, such as precise levelling and linear-angular networks, were used for the study. Many examples of studies referenced to strong seismic events using conventional geodetic techniques are presented in [T.

Rikitake, ]. One of the first case studies of geodetic earthquake precursors was done by Yu. Meshcheryakov []. Rare repetitions, insufficient densities and locations of control geodetic networks made difficult predicting future places and times of earthquakes occurrences. The characteristics of land surface deformation before, during, and after earthquakes have been obtained. The results prove the presence of anomalous deformations near their epicentres.

The revealed heterogeneities can be considered as deformation precursors of strong earthquakes. According to historical data and proper research values of critical deformations which are offered to be used for seismic danger scale creation based on continuous GNSS observations are received in a reference to the mentioned large earthquakes. It is shown that the approach has restrictions owing to uncertainty of the moment in the beginning of deformation accumulation and the place of expectation of another seismic event.

Verification and clarification of the derived conclusions are proposed. Asthenosphere rheology inferred from observations of the Indian Ocean earthquake. The concept of a weak asthenospheric layer underlying Earth's mobile tectonic plates is fundamental to our understanding of mantle convection and plate tectonics.

However, little is known about the mechanical properties of the asthenosphere the part of the upper mantle below the lithosphere underlying the oceanic crust, which covers about 60 per cent of Earth's surface. Great earthquakes cause large coseismic crustal deformation in areas hundreds of kilometres away from and below the rupture area.

Subsequent relaxation of the earthquake -induced stresses in the viscoelastic upper mantle leads to prolonged postseismic crustal deformation that may last several decades and can be recorded with geodetic methods. The observed postseismic deformation helps us to understand the rheological properties of the upper mantle, but so far such measurements have been limited to continental-plate boundary zones. Here we consider the postseismic deformation of the very large moment magnitude 8.

In the first three years after the Indian Ocean earthquake , 37 continuous Global Navigation Satellite Systems stations in the region underwent horizontal northeastward displacements of up to 17 centimetres in a direction similar to that of the coseismic offsets.

However, a few stations close to the rupture area that had experienced subsidence of up to about 4 centimetres during the earthquake rose by nearly 7 centimetres after the earthquake. Our three-dimensional viscoelastic finite-element models of the post- earthquake deformation show that a thin kilometres , low-viscosity having a steady-state Maxwell viscosity of 0.

Observations on water system and pipeline performance in the Limon area of Costa Rica due to the April 22, earthquake. Technical report. The document focuses on earthquake damage to water and oil pipelines, water supply, and water treatment following the 22 April Costa Rica Earthquake. The moment magnitude 7. The report also provides an overview of the engineering aspects of the event and recovery activities. Turbidity in the watershed which provides Limon's primary water supply increased to as high as 2.

Cast iron, ductile iron and reinforced concrete cylinder pipe water transmission lines were damaged by both wave propagation and permanent ground deformation. Water distribution piping, also including PVC and galvanized iron, was similarly impacted. Documentation and evaluation of that damage is described, and compared with empirical estimates from previous earthquakes.

Twin mm 6 in , km long, oil transmission lines suffered only a single failure from wrinkling. A description of the pipelines and the failure is provided. One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject.

Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes , the booklet discusses earthquake -prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes , earthquake…. Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include 1 geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; 2 description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and 3 prediction of earthquakes.

Development of compact long-term broadband ocean bottom seismometer for seafloor observation of slow earthquakes. It is important to understand coupling between plates in a subduction zone for studies of earthquake generation. Recently low frequency tremor and very low frequency earthquake VLFE were discovered in plate boundary near a trench.

These events slow earthquakes in shallow plate boundary should be related to slow slip on a plate boundary. Therefore frequency band of observation is slightly narrow for slow earthquakes. We adopted seismic sensor with natural period of 20 seconds Trillium Compact Broadband Seismometer, Nanometrics.

Because tilt of OBS on seafloor can not be controlled due to free-fall, leveling system for seismic sensor is necessary. The broadband seismic senor has cylinder shape with diameter of 90 mm and height of mm, and the developed levelling system can mount the seismic sensor with no modification of shape. The levelling system has diameter of mm and height of mm, which is the same size as existing levelling system of the LT-OBS. The levelling system has two horizontal axes and each axis is driven by motor.

Leveling can be performed up to 20 degrees by using micro-processor Arduino. Resolution of levelling is less than one degree. The system immediately starts leveling by the power-on of controller. After levelling, the the seismic senor is powered and the controller records angles of levelling to SD RAM.

Then the controller is shut down to consume no power. Compact long-term broadband ocean bottom seismometer is useful for observation of slow earthquakes on seafloor. In addition. There are a lot of buildings which is not experienced severe earthquakes in urban area. In Hanshin-Awaji Kobe Earthquake , it was presumed that 80 percent or more of the person was dead immediately after the earthquake by building collapse. Also in Haiti, a lot of buildings deprived of the life of persons.

In order to prevent the earthquake damage of urban area, it is the most effective to make the building earthquake -proof. However, there are still a lot of buildings not made earthquake -proof in Japan though 15 years passed since Kobe Earthquake. In order to promote making of the building earthquake -proof, various approaches such as visualization of seismic hazard, education of disaster prevention and legal system for promotion are needed.

We have developed the IT Kyoshin strong motion Seismometer for Building which is the observation system of the usual weak earthquake ground motion by installing a lot of acceleration sensors in building, and have been setting it up in some buildings of the University of Tokyo. We have also developed the visualization tool that can reproduce the building vibration during earthquake from the observed data.

By this tool, we can successfully show where is more shaking in the building or what is the feature of building vibration easily. Such information contributes to not only promotion of making building earthquake -proof but also promotion of disaster prevention action such as fixation of bookshelf, making the safety area in building, etc.

In addition, we proposed a concrete technique of the health investigation of buildings by using weak earthquake ground motion. Because there are 20 to 30 felt earthquakes in year in Tokyo area, it is possible to observe these building vibrations by using weak earthquake ground motions. In addition, we have developed the high sensitive ITK sensor which can observe from the microtremor to the felt earthquake in the place without the felt earthquake either.

This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest.

The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic. Lindsey, Nathaniel J. Our understanding of subsurface processes suffers from a profound observation bias: seismometers are sparse and clustered on continents. A new seismic recording approach, distributed acoustic sensing DAS , transforms telecommunication fiber-optic cables into sensor arrays enabling meter-scale recording over tens of kilometers of linear fiber length.

We analyze cataloged earthquake observations from three DAS arrays with different horizontal geometries to demonstrate some possibilities using this technology. In Fairbanks, Alaska, we find that stacking ground motion records along 20 m of fiber yield a waveform that shows a high degree of correlation in amplitude and phase with a colocated inertial seismometer record at 0.

Using an L-shaped DAS array in Northern California, we record the nearly vertically incident arrival of an earthquake from The Geysers Geothermal Field and estimate its backazimuth and slowness via beamforming for different phases of the seismic wavefield.

Lastly, we install a fiber in existing telecommunications conduits below Stanford University and show that little cable-to-soil coupling is required for teleseismic P and S phase arrival detection. Global observation of Omori-law decay in the rate of triggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes can be large, damaging, and lethal as evidenced by the shocks in Turkey and the events in El Salvador.

In this study, earthquakes with M greater than 7. Earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases occur at higher rates than background up to km away from the main-shock centroid. Earthquakes triggered by smaller quakes foreshocks also obey Omori's law, which is one of the few time-predictable patterns evident in the global occurrence of earthquakes. These observations indicate that earthquake probability calculations which include interactions from previous shocks should incorporate a transient Omori-law decay with time.

In addition, a very simple model using the observed global rate change with time and spatial distribution of triggered earthquakes can be applied to immediately assess the likelihood of triggered earthquakes following large events, and can be in place until more sophisticated analyses are conducted. Evolution in the lineament patterns associated to strong earthquakes revealed by satellite observations.

We are able to detect some changes in density and orientation of lineaments preceding earthquake events. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background. The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments; nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust.

Our analysis has shown that the system of lineaments is very dynamical, and the significant number of lineaments appeared approximately one month before an earthquake , while one month after the earthquake the lineament configuration returned to its initial state.

These features were not observed in the test areas that are free of any seismic activity in that period null hypothesis. Improvements of the offshore earthquake locations in the Earthquake Early Warning System. In the system started to provide warnings to the public in Taiwan via television and the cell phone. Online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 28 s for inland and offshore earthquakes , respectively.

However, offshore earthquakes were usually located poorly because only P-wave arrivals were used in the eBEAR system. Additionally, in the early stage of the earthquake early warning system , only fewer stations are available. The poor station coverage may be a reason to answer why offshore earthquakes are difficult to locate accurately.

In the Geiger's inversion procedure of earthquake location, we need to put an initial hypocenter and origin time into the location program. For the initial hypocenter, we defined some test locations on the offshore area instead of using the average of locations from triggered stations.

We performed 20 programs concurrently running the Geiger's method with different pre-defined initial position to locate earthquakes. We assume that if the program with the pre-defined initial position is close to the true earthquake location, during the iteration procedure of the Geiger's method the processing time of this program should be less than others.

The results show that using pre-defined locations for trial-hypocenter in the inversion procedure is able to improve the accurate of offshore earthquakes. Especially for EEW system , in the initial stage of the EEW system , only use 3 or 5 stations to locate earthquakes may lead to bad results because of poor station coverage. In this study, the pre-defined trial-locations provide a feasible way to improve the estimations of.

Borehole strain observations of very low frequency earthquakes. These MW 3. We look for the strain they produce on timescales from about 1 to 30 minutes. First, we stack the strain produced by 13 VLFEs identified by a grid search moment tensor inversion algorithm by Ghosh et. However, even at these stations, the signal to noise in the stack is often low, and the records are difficult to interpret. Therefore we also combine data from multiple stations and VLFE locations, and simply look for increases in the strain rate at the VLFE times, as increases in strain rate would suggest an increase in the moment rate.

The minute duration is chosen as a compromise that averages out some instrumental noise without introducing too much longer-period random walk noise. Our results suggest a factor of 2 increase in strain rate--and thus moment rate--during the minute VLFE intervals. Further analyses are currently being carried out to better understand the evolution of moment release before, during, and after the VLFEs.

Earthquakes -Rattling the Earth's Plumbing System. Hydrogeologic responses to earthquakes have been known for decades, and have occurred both close to, and thousands of miles from earthquake epicenters. Water wells have become turbid, dry or begun flowing, discharge of springs and ground water to streams has increased and new springs have formed, and well and surface-water quality have become degraded as a result of earthquakes.

Synthetic earthquake catalogs simulating seismic activity in the Corinth Gulf, Greece, fault system. The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is the basis of time-dependent modeling of earthquake recurrence on major faults. However, the characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data.

Few fault segments have long historical or paleoseismic records of individually dated ruptures, and when data and parameter uncertainties are allowed for, the form of the recurrence distribution is difficult to establish. The main features of our simulation algorithm are 1 an average slip rate released by earthquakes for every single segment in the investigated fault system , 2 heuristic procedures for rupture growth and stop, leading to a self-organized earthquake magnitude distribution, 3 the interaction between earthquake sources, and 4 the effect of minor earthquakes in redistributing stress.

The application of our simulation algorithm to the CGFS has shown realistic features in time, space, and magnitude behavior of the seismicity. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes , short-term clustering of both strong and smaller events, and a realistic earthquake magnitude distribution departing from the Gutenberg-Richter distribution in the higher-magnitude range.

Low frequency earthquakes LFE are detected in association with volcanic and tectonic tremor signals as impulsive, repeated, low frequency Hz events originating from localized sources. While the mechanism causing this depletion of the high frequency content of their signal is still unknown, this feature may indicate that the source processes at the origin of LFE are different from those for regular earthquakes.

Tectonic LFE are often associated with slip instabilities in the brittle-ductile transition zones of active faults and volcanic LFE with fluid transport in magmatic and hydrothermal systems. Key constraints on the LFE-generating physical mechanisms can be obtained by establishing scaling laws between their sizes and durations.

We apply a simple spectral analysis method to the S-waveforms of each LFE to retrieve its seismic moment and corner frequency. The former characterizes the earthquake 's size while the latter is inversely proportional to its duration. The moment-corner frequency distribution compared to values reported in previous studies in tectonic contexts is consistent with the scaling law suggested by Bostock et al.

We then apply the same source- parameters determination method to deep volcanic LFE detected in the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Kamtchatka, Russia. The scaling observed for LFE suggests that they are generated by sources of nearly constant size with strongly varying intensities. Geological Survey USGS to determine and comprehend the scope of any major earthquake disaster anywhere in the world has been dramatically reduced to less than 30 min.

PAGER alerts consist of estimated shaking hazard from the ShakeMap system , estimates of population exposure at various shaking intensities, and a list of the most severely shaken cities in the epicentral area. These estimates help government, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses in the immediate aftermath of a significant earthquake. This article describes the development of the models and demonstrates the loss estimation capability for earthquakes that have occurred since The empirical model relies on country-specific earthquake loss data from past earthquakes and makes use of calibrated casualty rates for future prediction.

The semi-empirical and analytical models are engineering-based and rely on complex datasets including building inventories, time-dependent population distributions within different occupancies, the vulnerability of regional building stocks, and casualty rates given structural collapse. The termination of deep earthquakes at a depth of km is a key feature for understanding the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes.

The km deep 30 May , Ogasawara Bonin earthquake Mw 7. Synthetic seismograms indicate that the P waveforms depend on whether the earthquake is located above or below the km discontinuity. In this study, I show that broadband recordings indicate that the earthquake may have occurred below the km velocity discontinuity.

Recordings of the P wave from the strongest aftershock lack evidence for wave triplication expected when a subhorizontal discontinuity underlies the hypocenter. Theoretical waveforms computed with a km discontinuity above the aftershock and mainshock match the observed waveforms more accurately. These observations may indicate earthquake ruptures due to mantle minerals other than olivine or strong deformation of the km phase transition. Is Your Class a Natural Disaster?

It can be In cooperation with the U. This is the same system used professionally by the USGS in its earthquake response operations. Utilizing this system , Penn State University students participating in natural hazard classes receive real-time alerts of worldwide earthquake events on cell phones distributed to the class. The students are then responsible for reacting to actual earthquake events, in real-time, with the same data or lack thereof as earthquake professionals.

The project was first implemented in Spring , and although it had an initial high intrigue and "coolness" factor, the interest of the students waned with time. Through student feedback, we observed that scientific data presented on its own without an educational context does not foster student learning. In order to maximize the impact of real-time data and the accompanying e-media, the students need to become personally involved. Therefore, in collaboration with the Incorporated Research Institutes of Seismology IRIS , we have begun to develop an online infrastructure that will help teachers and faculty effectively use real-time earthquake information.

The Real-Time Earthquake Education RTEE website promotes student learning by integrating inquiry-based education modules with real-time earthquake data. The first module guides the students through an exploration of real-time and historic earthquake datasets to model the most important criteria for determining the potential impact of an earthquake.

Having provided the students with content knowledge in the first module, the second module presents a more authentic, open-ended educational experience by setting up an earthquake role-play situation. Through the Earthworm system , we have the ability to "set off. The focal mechanisms of the two earthquakes have no low angle nodal planes, which shows that the earthquakes are intraplate earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate.

We observed coseismic horizontal displacement due to the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes by means of a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation, which is the first observation of coseismic seafloor displacement in the world. We have developed a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation. The observation system is composed of 1 acoustic measurement between a ship transducer and sea-bottom transponders, and 2 kinematic GPS positioning of the observation vessel.

We have installed a seafloor benchmark close to the epicenters of the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes. The benchmark is composed of three sea-bottom transponders. The location of benchmark is defined as the weight center of the three transponders. We can determine the location of benchmark with an accuracy of about 5 cm at each observation. We have repeatedly measured the seafloor benchmark six times up to now: 1 July and , , 2 November , 3 January 19, , 4 May , 5 July , and 6 August and The Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes occurred during the above monitoring period.

The coseismic horizontal displacement of about 21 cm toward SSE was observed at our seafloor benchmark. The displacement is 3. The monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation is effective to detect the deformations associated with earthquakes occurring in ocean areas. When an earthquake occurs, seismic intensities SI are calculated first at each observation station and sent to the Data Management Center in different timing.

The system begins the first estimation when the number of the stations observing the SI of 2. It estimates SI distribution, exposed population and earthquake damage on buildings by using basic data for estimation, such as subsurface amplification factors, population, and building information. The series of the estimation is performed for each m square mesh and finally the estimated data is converted into information for each municipality. Since October , we have opened estimated SI, exposed population etc.

In the previous system , we sometimes could not inspect the information of the surrounding areas out of the range suffered from strong motions, or the details of the focusing areas, and could not confirm whether the present information was the latest or not without accessing the website.

J-RISQ has been advanced by introducing the following functions to settle those problems and promote utilization in local areas or in personal levels. In addition, the website in English has been released. The information estimated.

An integrated observational site for monitoring pre- earthquake processes in Peloponnese, Greece. Preliminary results. Tsinganos, Kanaris; Karastathis, Vassilios K. We are presenting the first results of developing a new integrated observational site in Greece to study pre- earthquake processes in Peloponnese, lead by the National Observatory of Athens. We have developed a prototype of multiparameter network approach using an integrated system aimed at monitoring and thorough studies of pre- earthquake processes at the high seismicity area of the Western Hellenic Arc SW Peloponnese, Greece.

The initial prototype of the new observational systems consists of: 1 continuous real-time monitoring of Radon accumulation in the ground through a network of radon sensors, consisting of three gamma radiation detectors [NaI Tl scintillators], 2 nine-station seismic array installed to detect and locate events of low magnitude less than 1. The radon increases systematically before the larger events. For example a radon anomaly was predominant before the event of Sep 28, M 5.

The seismic array assists in the evaluation of current seismicity and may yield identification of foreshock activity. Thermal anomalies in satellite images are also examined as an additional tool for evaluation and verification of the Radon increase. According to the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling LAIC concept, atmospheric thermal anomalies observed before large seismic events are associated with the increase of Radon concentration on the ground.

Details about the integrating ground and space observations , overall performance of the observational sites, future plans in advancing the cooperation in observations will be discussed. The rupture location of a Mw 8 megathrust earthquake can dramatically change the near-source tsunami impact, where a shallow earthquake can produce a disproportionally large tsunami for its magnitude.

Because the locking pattern of the shallow Cascadia megathrust is unconstrained due to the lack of widespread seafloor geodetic observations , near-source tsunami early warning systems need to be able to identify shallow, near-trench earthquakes. Onshore GPS displacements provide low frequency ground motions and coseismic offsets for characterizing tsunamigenic earthquakes , however the one-sided distribution of data may not be able to uniquely determine the rupture region.

We examine how augmenting the current real-time GPS network in Cascadia with different offshore station configurations improves static slip inversion solutions for Mw 8 earthquakes at different rupture depths. Two offshore coseismic data types are tested in this study: vertical-only, which would be available using existing technology for bottom pressure sensors, and all-component, which could be achieved by combining pressure sensors with real-time GPS-Acoustic observations. We find that both types of offshore data better constrain the rupture region for a shallow earthquake compared to onshore data alone when offshore stations are located above the rupture.

However, inversions using vertical-only offshore data tend to underestimate the amount of slip for a shallow rupture, which we show underestimates the tsunami impact. Including offshore horizontal coseismic data into the inversions improves the slip solutions for a given offshore station configuration, especially in terms of maximum slip. This suggests that while real-time GPS-Acoustic sensors may have a long development timeline, they will have more impact for inversion-based tsunami early warning systems than bottom pressure sensors.

We also conduct sensitivity studies using kinematic models with varying rupture speeds and rise times as a proxy. A comparison among observations and earthquake simulator results for the allcal2 California fault model. Tullis, Terry. In order to understand earthquake hazards we would ideally have a statistical description of earthquakes for tens of thousands of years.

The question is, how realistic are these simulated histories? This purpose of this paper is to begin to answer that question. We compare the results between different simulators and with information that is known from the limited instrumental, historic, and paleoseismological data. The simulators appear to pass this necessary test.

This suggests that they represent realistic behavior. Different assumptions concerning the constitutive properties of the faults do result in enhanced capabilities of some simulators. This paper describes the results of running four earthquake simulators that are described elsewhere in this issue of Seismological Research Letters. A discussion of P- and S-waves seems an ubiquitous part of studying earthquakes in the classroom.

Textbooks from middle school through university level typically define the differences between the waves and illustrate the sense of motion. While many students successfully memorize the differences between wave types often utilizing the first letter as a memory aide , textbooks rarely give tangible examples of how the two waves would "feel" to a person sitting on the ground.

One reason for introducing the wave types is to explain how to calculate earthquake epicenters using seismograms and travel time charts -- very abstract representations of earthquakes. Even when the skill is mastered using paper-and-pencil activities or one of the excellent online interactive versions, locating an epicenter simply does not excite many of our students because it evokes little emotional impact, even in students located in earthquake -prone areas.

Despite these limitations, huge numbers of students are mandated to complete the task. At the K level, California requires that all students be able to locate earthquake epicenters in Grade 6; in New York, the skill is a required part of the Regent's Examination. Recent innovations in earthquake early warning systems around the globe give us the opportunity to address the same content standard, but with substantially more emotional impact on students.

I outline a lesson about earthquakes focused on earthquake early warning systems. The introductory activities include video clips of actual earthquakes and emphasize the differences between the way P- and S-waves feel when they arrive P arrives first, but is weaker. I include an introduction to the principle behind earthquake early warning including a summary of possible uses of a few seconds warning about strong shaking and show examples from Japan. Students go outdoors to simulate P-waves, S-waves, and occupants of two different cities who are talking to one another on cell phones.

Recent deployments of broadband seismographs in the POLENET project have allowed passive seismic techniques, such as receiver function analysis and surface wave dispersion, to be widely utilized to infer crustal and mantle velocity structure across much of the WARS and West Antarctica.

In late , 34 broadband seismographs were deployed atop the ice shelf to jointly study deep Earth structure and the dynamics of the ice shelf. Ice shelf conditions present strong challenges to broadband teleseismic imaging: 1 The presence of complicating signals in the microseism through long-period bands due to the influence of ocean gravity waves; 2 The strong velocity contrasts at the ice-water and water-sediment interfaces on either side of the water layer give rise to large amplitude reverberations; 3 The water layer screens S-waves or P-to-S phases originating from below the water layer.

We present an initial analysis of the first teleseismic earthquake arrivals collected on the ice shelf at the end of the field season from a limited subset of these stations. Earle, P. The U. This Comprehensive Catalog ComCat provides a unified earthquake product while preserving attribution and contributor information.

ComCat contains hypocenter and magnitude information with supporting phase arrival-time and amplitude measurements when available. Higher-level products such as focal mechanisms, earthquake slip models, "Did You Feel It? Throughout the past few years, a concentrated effort has been underway to expand ComCat by integrating global and regional historic catalogs.

The number of earthquakes in ComCat has more than doubled in the past year and it presently contains over 1. We will provide an overview of catalog contents and a detailed description of numerous tools and semi-automated quality-control procedures developed to uncover errors including systematic magnitude biases, missing time periods, duplicate postings for the same events, and incorrectly associated events.

Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. Earthquake early warning EEW systems are one of the most effective ways to reduce earthquake disaster. Earthquake magnitude estimation is one of the most important and also the most difficult parts of the entire EEW system. The P d value can also be used to estimate the peak ground motion of velocity, then warning information can be released to the public rapidly, according to the estimation results.

In order to insure the stability and reliability of magnitude estimation results, we propose a compatibility test according to the natures of these two parameters. The reliability of the early warning information is significantly improved though this test. Horiuchi et al. REIS determines hypocenter locations and earthquake magnitudes automatically within a few seconds after P waves arrive at the closest station and calculates focal mechanisms within about 15 seconds.

The results by the two systems are merged. This study examines the rapidity and credibility of REIS by analyzing the earthquakes which occurred around the Japan Islands since with magnitude larger than 3. REIS re-determines hypocenter parameters every one second according to the revision of waveform data. Here, we discuss only about the results by the first reports. On rapidness, our results show that about 44 percent of the first reports are issued within 5 seconds after the P waves arrives at the closest stations.

Note that this 5-second time window includes time delay due to data package and transmission delay of about 2 seconds. REIS waits till two stations detect P waves for events in the network but four stations outside the network so as to get reliable solutions. For earthquakes with hypocentral distance less than km, 55 percent of earthquakes are warned in 5 seconds and 87 percent are warned in 10 seconds. Most of events having long time delay are small and triggered by S wave arrivals.

About 80 percent of events have difference in epicenter distances less than 20km relative to JMA manually determined locations. Because of the existence of large lateral heterogeneity in seismic velocity, the difference depends. Quasi-dynamic earthquake fault systems with rheological heterogeneity. Seismic risk and hazard estimates mostly use pure empirical, stochastic models of earthquake fault systems tuned specifically to the vulnerable areas of interest.

Although such models allow for reasonable risk estimates, such models cannot allow for physical statements of the described seismicity. In contrary such empirical stochastic models, physics based earthquake fault systems models allow for a physical reasoning and interpretation of the produced seismicity and system dynamics.

Recently different fault system earthquake simulators based on frictional stick-slip behavior have been used to study effects of stress heterogeneity, rheological heterogeneity, or geometrical complexity on earthquake occurrence, spatial and temporal clustering of earthquakes , and system dynamics.

Here we present a comparison of characteristics of synthetic earthquake catalogs produced by two different formulations of quasi-dynamic fault system earthquake simulators. Both models are based on discretized frictional faults embedded in an elastic half-space.

While one 1 is governed by rate- and state-dependent friction with allowing three evolutionary stages of independent fault patches, the other 2 is governed by instantaneous frictional weakening with scheduled and therefore causal stress transfer. We analyze spatial and temporal clustering of events and characteristics of system dynamics by means of physical parameters of the two approaches. HF Doppler observations of acoustic waves excited by the earthquake. Ichinose, T.

Ionospheric disturbances caused by the earthquake of a relatively small and large epicentral distance have been detected by a network of HF-Doppler sounders in central Japan and Kyoto station, respectively. The HF-Doppler data of a small epicentral distance, together with the seismic data, have been used to formulate a mechanism whereby ionospheric disturbances are produced by the Urakawa-Oki earthquake in Japan.

Comparison of the dynamic spectra of these data has revealed experimentally that the atmosphere acts as a low-pass filter for upward-propagating acoustic waves. By surveying the earthquakes for which the magnitude M is larger than 6. As almost all these effects have occurred in the daytime, it is considered that it may result from the filtering effect of the upward-propagating acoustic waves.

Possible deep fault slip preceding the Parkfield earthquake , inferred from detailed observations of tectonic tremor. Earthquake predictability depends, in part, on the degree to which sudden slip is preceded by slow aseismic slip. Recently, observations of deep tremor have enabled inferences of deep slow slip even when detection by other means is not possible, but these data are limited to certain areas and mostly the last decade.

The region near Parkfield, California, provides a unique convergence of several years of high-quality tremor data bracketing a moderate earthquake , the magnitude 6. Here, I present detailed observations of tectonic tremor from mid through that indicate deep fault slip both before and after the Parkfield earthquake that cannot be detected with surface geodetic instruments. The 26 May Yogyakarta earthquake fault observed by seismic data and satellite data based surface features. The nearby Opak River fault was thought to be the source of this earthquake disaster.

However, no significant surface movement was observed along the fault which could confirm that this fault was really the source of the earthquake. To investigate the earthquake source and to understand the earthquake mechanism, a rapid response team of the German Task Force for Earthquake , together with the Seismological Division of Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika and Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, had installed a temporary seismic network of 12 short period seismometers.

More than aftershocks were recorded during the 3-month campaign. Here we present the result of several hundred processed aftershocks. HypoDD software was used for hypocenters relocation to obtain high precision aftershock locations. Our aftershock distribution shows a system of lineaments in southwest-northeast direction, about 10 km east to Opak River fault, at km depth.

The b-value map from the aftershocks shows that the main lineaments have relatively low b-value at the middle part which suggests this part is still under stress. We also observe several aftershock clusters cutting these lineaments in nearly perpendicular direction. To verify the interpretation of our aftershocks analysis, we will overlay it on surface feature we delineate from satellite data.

Hopefully our result will give significant contribution to understand the near surface fault systems around Yogyakarta Area in order to mitigate similar earthquake hazard in the future. Akkar, Sinan; Aldemir, A. Forty-two people lost their lives and were injured during the event. The earthquake was reported to be on the left-lateral strike-slip east Anatolian fault EAF , which is one of the two major active fault systems in Turkey.

Their reconnaissance observations were combined with interpretations of recorded ground motions for completeness. This article summarizes observations on building and ground damage in the area and provides a discussion of the recorded motions. No significant observations in terms of geotechnical engineering were made. Important Earthquake Engineering Resources. However, the huge energy released by a big earthquake can obviously disturb the TEC over meizoseismal area.

Signals in the ionosphere generated by tsunami earthquakes : observations and modeling suppor. Rolland, L. Forecasting systems failed to predict the magnitude of the great tsunami in Japan due to the difficulty and cost of instrumenting the ocean with high-quality and dense networks. Melgar et al. Even though typical tsunami waves are only a few centimeters high, they are powerful enough to create atmospheric vibrations extending all the way to the ionosphere, kilometers up in the atmosphere.

Therefore, we are proposing to incorporate the ionospheric signals into tsunami early-warning systems. We anticipate that the method could be decisive for mitigating "tsunami earthquakes " which trigger tsunamis larger than expected from their short-period magnitude. These events are challenging to characterize as they rupture the near-trench subduction interface, in a distant region less constrained by onshore data.

As a couple of devastating tsunami earthquakes happens per decade, they represent a real threat for onshore populations and a challenge for tsunami early-warning systems. We will present the TEC observations of the recent Java and Mentawaii tsunami earthquakes and base our analysis on acoustic ray tracing, normal modes summation and the simulation code SPECFEM, which solves the wave equation in coupled acoustic ocean, atmosphere and elastic solid earth domains.

Rupture histories are entered as finite source models, which will allow us to evaluate the effect of a relatively slow rupture on the surrounding ocean and atmosphere. To observe the influence of earthquake crush injury on postoperative wound healing of extremity fractures. The study involved 85 patients with extremities fracture underwent internal fixation operation in 3 group, including 28 earthquake casualties with crush injuries in observation group, 27 earthquake casualties without crush injuries in control I group and 30 local patients during the same period in control II group.

Urine routine, blood creatine kinase CK and wound conditions of patients in 3 groups were observed respectively. There was no significant difference in Urine routine and blood CK between 3 groups and was significant difference in wound conditions between observation group and each control group.

Earthquake crush injuries can influence the postoperative wound healing of extremity fractures. Chapter C. The October 17, , Loma Prieta, Calif. The data obtained include observations on seismicity, continuous strain, long-term ground displacement, magnetic field, and hydrology. The papers in this chapter describe these data, their implications for fault-failure mechanisms, the scale of prerupture nucleation, and earthquake prediction in general.

Of the 10 papers presented here, about half identify preearthquake anomalies in the data, but some of these results are equivocal. Seismicity in the Loma Prieta region during the 20 years leading up to the earthquake was unremarkable. In retrospect, however, it is apparent that the principal southwest-dipping segment of the subsequent Loma Prieta rupture was virtually aseismic during this period.

Tsunami earthquakes generate tsunamis larger than expected for their seismic magnitude. They rupture the shallow megathrust, which is usually at significant distance from land-based monitoring networks. This distance presents a challenge in accurately estimating the magnitude and source extent of tsunami earthquakes. Whether these parameters can be estimated reliably is critical to the success of tsunami early warning systems.

We examine two Mw 7. Both events triggered a tsunami alert that was canceled later. The Banyaks event April 6th, did not generate a tsunami and caused only minor earthquake -related damage to infrastructure. The tsunami claimed more than lives. These two signals reveal the large surface displacement at the rupture, and the consequent destructive tsunami. This comparative study of two earthquakes with the same magnitude at different depths highlights the potential role of ionospheric monitoring by GNSS to tsunami early warning.

We provide the school kids with the "World Seismicity Map" to let them realize that earthquake disasters take place unequally. Then we let the kids jump in front of the seismometer with projecting the real-time data to the wall. The paper will be published sometime next year. In N o v e m b e r , a paper dealing with his discovery was published in the prestigious Science m agazine.

Science News the following week c o m mented favorably upon his observations. Today muc of his work is ac omplished from behind a m i c ros c o pe a n d over data sh eets in hi s small P LU laboratory. Interesting questions. You c a n believe that I had considerable c o n c e r n a s to w h e t h e r m y practicality-oriented mind could open up enough to accept a n d a s s i m ilate s o phisticated theories.

Perhaps my reaction to the pro g r a m a ro s e bec a u s e each d a y provided new thoughts,. I do not believe that. The new program is designed to encourage the entry of adults, p r im a r i l y women, into college, J u n g k u nt z indica t e d.

Paul, Minn. The students i n PLU 's MBA progra m h ave varied b a c k g r ounds - engineers, bankers, brokers , accountants , entrepreneu rs, etc. Too, m a n y of the graduate students are moving directly into graduate work without interruption from t h e un d e r g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m. Although I was the " old man," I believe, of the p rogram at the time, the senility didn't seem to show.

Many new and good friendships were developed with fellow stu-. I would hope they can be maintained. Throughout the program, I was i mpressed with the guidance and help offered by faculty members to t h e s t u d ents. This past summer, two years after the commencement of the g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m for m e , I walked upon the stage to receive my MBA degree. R a t h e r , t h e fears had been converted t o a s e n s e o f exhil aration, not only a t having completed what had appeared to be a formidable assignm ent but, more i m p o r t a n t l y , at h a v i n g r eached the goa l expe riencing many warm and rewarding occurences along the way.

Patterson said. For w h a t e v er reason, it seems that apprehensions affect their decisions. Patterson has been closely. She earned her master's degree at the University of P u g e t. Sound under the program. F o r f u r t h e r i n fo r m ation regarding the adult college entry program , contact Ms. Patterson at PLU. B e c a use the i ndividual student with or without pare nt's help finally foots so much of the bill, we are keenly aware of our own r e s ponsibility to find the best ways and means of keeping the cost at the lowest possible level, while still maintaining the quality we all desire.

In order to maintain the status quo - to say nothing of improving what we h a ve, l e t a l o n g initiating n e w p r o g r a m s o r c o ns tr u c t i o n of needed buildings - there is no alternative but to increase the charges for tuitio n , ro o m a n d board costs for the coming year. The best we can do is expl a i n why the disco mfort i s necessary.

What's the situation? This means that it has been costing the University at east that much more for goods and services than it did a year ago. We would long since have gone into the red if it were not for the fact that over the l ast four to five years we have not been paying wages and salaries to match the rate of inflation.

Lewis and Clark U. Olaf U. Willa mette Whitworth Cal. Lutheran P. Seattle Pacific. Additional loan funds have been identified through the federal government and other sources. Meeting the new costs will still be a challenge, but the unive r s ity is r e a d y to make even greater efforts than. The Board of Regents of Pacific Lutheran University , at its February 18 meeting, establis hed the following rate for the academic year: Tuition: Room and Board:.

Hence, our rate will still leave us with our same relative standing, at the low end of the scale. At the present time, tuition covers A n a n n u a l gif t equivalent to the income from a three million dollar endowment is received from the national offices of t h e A m e r i c a n L u t h e r a n C h u r c h. H e n c e , if it w e r e n o t f o r t h e gratifying help o f our supporters in the private sector to subsidize a. Finally, what is really at stake is quality education. There is a real advantage.

A bequest in your will can perhaps save some estate taxes. It I S your responsibility to pay the upkeep and other costs of the home 8:s long as you are there. Sound interesting? For more i nformation o n t hi s and oth e r types o f deferred gifts, write or call: Edg r Larson. Th PC should have been sen by Fe. March 3 is the date we plan to b e g in m a k i n g f ina n ial a id decisions for new students a nd 3 yard notices will be mailed in the middle of March.

For c;tudents who have not co ,. Applications for admission to PLU are being s ubmitted at a "brisk" pace as interest in our p ro g r a m o f C h r i s t i a n h i g h e r education continues to grow. Over students have already b e e n offered admission for fall 1 We e ncourage s ubmission of names ' addresses and telephone num be rs and year of high school graduation of a n y prospective students we should contact. We need your continued support.

U will be increased next year due In part to additional funds generated by the alumni New Directions program. Tentative approval of our request f o r c on t i n u a t i o n of f e d e r a l student ai pr grams has been received. Generally, the outlook for gift assistance , low-interest loans. To be considered for finanCial a ssistance from all federal and most PLU progra m s tb r e a r e two steps that must b e taken: 1. W h at is behind the India n occupation of buildings owned by church related groups, such as the Alexian Brothers' novitiate in W i s consin and the Gethsemane cemetery building near Federal Way, Wash.?

Boe s ay s. B ut for Indians there is only the sacred. The relationship with the earth, with the family, with the community - these all have religious connotations. They don't worshIp a multitude of gods. T h e o n l y difference is that they don't. We're reaping the harvest now -. Bo is helping make u n d ers t a n d a ble to his p eopl e what is happening a mong native A m enc a n s as they search for heir own identit , c u lture a nd religlOn.

Arrangements for the king' visi t we r e made on campus in January by Soren C. In addition to meeting with the comm i t t e e , c h a i r e d b y P L U registrar Charles Nelson, Somme rfel t w a s the h o n o r e d guest at a reception for PL U faulty and friends. A Seattle tour 'a:; his most recent visit to the northwest. Arthur O. Sommerfelt said that the sailing would be reenacted next summer in Norway. Norwe gian Ambassador Sommerfelt meets with Dr.

Robert Mortvedt, PLU president emeritus, dur i n g c am pus reception. Ambassad or Soren Sommerfelt, left, greets Dr. Paul V i g n ess, pr ofes s o r emeritus of h i story. Vigness presented a c opy of his book, "The German Occupation of Norway.

A Norwegi an-Ame ri c a n exh i b i t , s p o t l i g h t i n g b o o k s , artwork, handic raft and ma n y other types of heritage items, will be held i n the Olson Auditorium F'e ldho u s e f r om 0 -5 p. In addition, a Norwegian film f e s t i v a l w i l l b e h eld i n Administration B u i l d i n g room throughout the afternoon. Following a Norwegian no-host banquet, at which the Normanna Chorus has been invited to sing, the May Festival will begi n. A g r oup of s eni o r his t r y students at P LU are working with ciozens gr ups and individuals to deve l o p a written, i l l ustrat ed hlstory of Parkland, according to D r.

The p r o j e c t , co nd u c t e d i n c ope ration with the Suburban Club and the F r i e n d s G r o u p , Parkland Library, will hopefully result in a publication that can be m a de available to the public, Martinson indicated.

S p e a r h e a d i n g c om m u ni t y efforts to obtain historical data and records for the proj ect are Mrs. D ia n n a Casteel. Each parti e ipant 1D the project h as bee n assi gned an are a of research. Topics i n Jude pioneer days , m tlit ary i n f l u e n c e , eco n mics, religion. The facility presently houses written and oral records in selected areas of Pacific Northwest history.

David B. The Schnacke n be rg Lecture was establI shed i n 1 9 7 4 ' n memory of Dr. His study, " Th e G overnm ental Process, " which deals with the place of groups w i t h i n p o l i t i c a l sy s t e m s , i s regarded a s a classic. A m e m b e r a n d d i re c t o r o f fo undations, corporations a n d professional organizations, h e has served during the past year on the Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs , initiated by John D.

Rockefeller I I. Cheri Sorenson. The auditions annually attract repre s e n t a t i v e s fro m a l l t h e major drama schools and profes-. Richard Jun kuntz, acting LU president, announced. She will become the first American student and only the third foreign student to study there. Cheri Sorenson sional repertory compames in the nation. S ha kespeare Company, Penn State University and others. A "normal" number of offers is three or four, according to d ra m a p r o fe s s o r W i l l i a m Becvar.

More than 1 , com petitors n atio n w i d e v i e d for a u d i t i o n exposure in regional competition held in January. Most of the week-long lecture program w'll fea ture classroom a nd l u ncheon ill cussions, With one p u blic l ec t ur e s he d ul e d W e d n e s d a y , J: a l c h 1 2 , i n Eastvold Auditorium ' t 8 : IS p.

Smith , who succeeded her late husband in the U. She was the first wom a n elected to a leadership post in the U. Mehlu m , 22, is majoring in N orw e g i a n and economics at PLU. She has also been a member of the Mooring Mast student newspaper staff, the women' s field hockey team, and Spurs , a sopho more women's honora ry. During the early history of P.

A l u m n i o v e r t h e y e a r s h ave volunteered their servic e s t o d o w h a t they could and what was necessary to make their alma mater not only survive but excel. T h e y ha ve solicited the help of other alumni and together have brought the A l u m n i As sociation to a position of prominence and pride. Today the Alumni of PLU are playing an integral part in charting its course.

The A l u m n i New Directions program with literally hu n d r e d s of volunteer workers is well on its way to becoming a reality. With nearly half of t h e h a l f million dollar goal already pledged or given the Alumni are finding themselves c a p able of f i l l i n g m a n y e d u c a ti o n a l needs that would otherwise g o unmet.

The Task Force on Governance whose results will have a lasting affect on the future of P. And the choice of Dr. William Rieke as the tenth president of P. Here Dr. Knutson asks if the Church an survive in our secular society. I t ' s surely beyond the scope o f this author and article to attempt to speak completely to this entire question. It's well, however, that we frequently review the issues. Rieke, is the second PLU alumnus to be elected as chief executive officer of his alma mater.

Harold A. Rieke's oldest brother, the late Dr. Marcus Rieke, was president at Texas Lutheran College for three years before his death in Two brothers, Luverne and Robert, live in Seattle. His mother, M r s. Hutoka Rieke, lives at the Hearthstone retire ment home in Seattle. Another cousin. W are indebted to her ror helping us wi this story. So me have deci ed Lha it's i mpossible. Others ha ve fou nd t hai the two conce pts are not mutuall, exc l usive.

Paradoxical ye , but not exclusive. Can PLU survive? On the basis of my own personal experience, I would ha ve to answer this question with a resounding, unequivocal, yes! M o rtved t frequently addressed himself to this question during his tenure as Presideut of PL U.

As a student, I often heard him indicate his conviction that the s u r v i v a l of P L U was a x iomatic. I think it i s precisely at this point that our voice must be clearly heard. Our Alumni Board and Association has no desire whatsoever, to usurp any of the functions o r a u t hority of e i t h e r t h e. R - ge ntt; I' t he Adn inistra lior. They are rIghtl y the legal over-seer.

We have a reason for be ing! And tha reason can not be rightly seen apart from the Chri tian commitment upon hich PLU was founded. We, as an Associat io n and as individuals, have a stewardshi p obligation to help perpetuat e this unique ed ucational opportunity. Absolutely yes! We will be able to assist many students with scholarships.

We will be able to continue support of the library. M any of you have demonstrated your interest in this field for a number of years. Hauge Endowed Professorship. You are a part of all this. Board of Regents Theodore C. Fynboe '49 1 Alfaretta S. Tacoma, WA L a w r e n c e J. Jeff Probstfield '63 Humboldt Ave. Minneapolis, M N 6 1 2 Chap. Tacoma, WA Dr. Christy Ulleland ' Bolland '58 P.

Box Woodburn, OR Marvin D. Seat tle, W A 98 1 1 5 Luthe r T. Tacoma, WA 2 1 1 Dr. Strandness, J r. Ronald L. Student Repre enla ti " t! Steve Isaacson 2 1 3 -A. HKIS is an educational arm of the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod, which serves about students in grades kindergarten through twelve. About two-thirds of the students are American, but they also have Chinese s t udents a s weI!

Mary Kaye is finding her work very satisfying and her involvement in the community varies from youth affairs committee of the American Chamber of Commerce to the vice-chairperson of the Hong Kong Career Masters Association and a huge research project which was initiated by a group of women students. The Beacon is a weekly newspaper started last summer. It serves communities on the coast from Ocean Shores on the south to Taholah on the north. George s t i l l r e m a i n s very active in Olympia, Wash.

He and his wife Edna moved from Portland, where they had l i v e d for m a ny y e a r s , to S e a t t l e in February. H e has been active in Tacoma civic affairs and is i mmediate past exalted ruler of Tacoma Elks Lodge He b e g a n h i s career i n i n the Lewis and Clark School District. During the next 19 years, he was a teacher and elementary school principal.

All American members h i p , based on superior production throughout , was open to only ten men out of a field force of over This is the fifth year that LeRoy has qualified for the All America honor. Club m e m b ership was b a s e d on s u pe r i o r production throughout They have three school age children. Jim and Lori both teach elementary school and the entire. E r nie has worked for Hug hes Aircraft Company since January Their new children are Kara 1 0 , Michelle 6 a n d M a tthew 4.

Husband, Norm, is director of materials in the A. Prior to his promotion Gordon was in charge of installment credit. He and his family will reside in Everett. Georgia Bucholz i s t e a c h i n g a d u l t e d u c a t ion classes and working at Thousand Oaks High School. They have two sons, Steven 8 and David 7. V e r no n , Alexandria, Va. David is currently a member of the music faculty at PLU, and is also o r g a n i s t - c h o i r m a s t e r a t Christ Episcopal i n Tacoma, Wash.

A third child was born to them on Dec. His name is Eric Anders. F R E I S H E I M is a s s o c i a t e p r o f e s s o r of b i o l o g i c a l chemistry at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio and is presently heading a research team at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center to probe the internal mechanisms of cancer cells in hope of finding better ways to tflck them into self destl'uction. Ken is teaching in the School of C o m m unication at the University of Washington.

Nancy plans to study specific learning disabilities at the U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n , I n s ti tute of Educarion. Their two ch ildren Lees a and Rob left with them. Anne c o ntinues as child pla ce men t so cial worker at McKin ley. They have one daughter, Karen age 3. They are living i n East Burlington, Wash. Gary also fills i n for vacationing pastors. They have two children, Erik 6 years and Stephanie, 3 years. Dean i s on the board o f d irectors of R o u t t C o u n t y Memo rial Hospital.

He has also passed his brokers exam for the State of Colorado. She and husband Wa yne have recently moved to Puyallup, Wash. GARY L. Kathryn i s a new b o a rd member of the Tacoma Youth Symphony and teaches piano privately at home. Judy is enjoying her role as a wife and mother and keeps busy with numerous church activities. He lives in Seattle with his wife, Kathy, and their infant son, Rhett.

He is studying under Dr. Richard Wennberg. His wife, Frances Burchfield x'68 and two children moved w i t h h i m to C a l i fo r n i a f r o m Oregon early in February. T h e y moved t o a new home in September and have adopted a two-year old son from Vietnam at Christmastime.

School District. His wife, Sharon, has finished her M. The kindergarten is a place where mothers can leave their children while they shop. Dave is a flight instructor and is flying charter for "S kycraft, I nc. Chris is kept busy at home by son Peter, one year old. He is currently doing his internship and residency in Internal ;M e d i c i ne at the U n i v e r s i t y of U t a h Affiliated Hospitals.

She also attends C o m m u n ity Chapel Bible College part time. In her " s pare time" she assists a local doctor with home deliveries in the Seattle area. He has been called to the office as minister of St. Paul Lutheran Church, Alpena, Mich. Cole is on the staff at Zorzor, Liberia, where the Liberian government assi gned him at the Curran Lutheran Hos pit al at their request. They have two children, Jembaa Nyaboke 4 and Omandi 7 months. Nyarinda visited her home in Kenya this sum mer before their move to Liberia.

He assisted at the Christmas e ve c o m m u nion a n d c o n d u c t ed t h e service on Christmas day. H e and his wife Monika and infant son Jonas live in an a p a r t m e n t at the church. Prior to going to Portland they lived in Germany where John was working as a minister's iassistant i n a German Lutheran church. This i s the first time Monika has been in 'the United States. KIM D. He is currently residing in the Kirkland area.

Rick i s currently serving as associate p a s t o r a t Central Lutheran Church in E u g e n e. Her husband, Richard, is a car salesman in Puyallup, Wash. They have two children, Amy age 4 and Duff Joseph born June 22, She was a math instructor at PLU in Davis High School in Yakima, but she gave it up this year when their twin d a u ghters arrived on November 18, and is now a full-time mother and homemaker.

Her husband, Bud, is a hop broker and runs a fruit ranch. A l a n also attends Elmira College working on his master's degree in education. Miles works for the Veterans Administration and will complete his masters in public administration at the University of the Philippines in March. He is also attending Florida Technological U n i v e r s i t y p a r t t i m e. They are busy raising Perc heron work horses w h i c h they say a re m a k i n g a great comeback due to the energy crisis and ecology movements.

Judy received her master of arts in teaching at Lewis and Clark in Portland, Ore. They a re both teaching music in Tacoma, where they reside. They have one son, John Edward, who was born September 18, He also teaches piano and music theory.

This is Cathy ' s fourth year of teaching in the Lynch School District. S he i s also chai r m a n o f t h e superintendent's council for the district this year. She is also working on her graduate degree. Brew er, Ltd. His uffice is i n U mat ill a, O re. FRED R. He is practicing law in Phoenix, Ariz. He a n d his w i f e , Patricia, live o n Route 5 i n Port Angeles with their two children Matthew, age 2 and Marc 6 months.

The family is living in Anacortes, Wash. He will receive his masters in church history his spring. He is working as a n as sociate applicat ions analyst for Control Data Corporation. David has been promoted t o operations. Paula keeps busy at home with Shelley 4 years and Mark 22 mont hs.

They hope to be back in the Pacific N rthwest in June. He was born May 3, in Sidney, Nebr. He is survived by his widow, the former Linda Phillips of Tacoma. ROY A. TOWE '46, passed away Oct. At the time of her death Mrs. Towe was a research technologist in genetics at the University of W a shington. She was PLU student body president in the school year. She g r a d u ated in and later did graduate work in botany and genetics at the University of Washington.

Rosella Wekell Ro bert B. Ch amber of Commerce, died on Jan. PLU is grateful to D o u g l a s and to others like him who find satisfaction and enjoyment in sharing their talents and means for the advancement of the school. PLU benefited in co untl ess ways from her concern and involvem nt. She was a positive example of the joy of giving.

Wekell in Rosella Wekell delighted tho s e w h o knew her personally, and enriched many who never met her. Pacific Lutheran University is stronger and better because she chose to be a part of it. Wekell died on January 9, Blessed be her memory. Harold Ronning Mrs. Eline Morken M r s. In she was promoted to a s s o c i a t e p rofessor and director of the School of Nursing.

She retired in Morken was born in Cl ifford , N. She received a bachelor's degree from St. Olaf College Minn. Morken was assistant director of nursing at F a i r v i e w H o s p i t a l , M i nneapoli s 1 , and director of nursing at Deaconess Hospital, Spokane 1 , at Lutheran Hospital, Eau Claire, Wis.

He later taught in the public schools in Oakland, Calif. He was a practicing psychologist and counselor at his o w n c l i n i c in L o s A n g e l e s , a n d h e w a s a member of the staff at Lutheran Social S e rvices of Southern California at the time of his death. Ronning, who moved to Alberta, Canada, after his wife died in China. I t was with Dr. Ronning 's enthusiasm,. It was dedicated Sept. Ronning wrote several poems and articles which expressed his belief in the principle of cooperation, individually, soci ally a n d internationally.

Johnson of Tacoma on June 15, They live in University Place, Tacoma where they have just recently purchased a new home. Taylor, who is also an Army Nurse. Green on A u g. They live i n Duluth, Min n. DANA E. PAUL T. Both are attending PLU, she is a junior 10 the School of Nursmg and he is working on a master's degree in psychology. The c;ouple lives in Tacoma, Wash.

Lutheran of Moorehead, Minn. IS, Th ey live in Tacoma. Robert J. Thomas Episcopal Chul'ch, Medina, Wash. They now l ive on Mercer Island, Wash. A nd rew ' s Presbyterian C hu rc h in Portland , Ore. The oupJe will make their home In E verett.

Swank were married Dec. Fred Schnaible were married January 4 , 1 97 5. They reside in E n d icott, Wash. R icbard R ouse '69 S ue Schillinger ' 7 1 girl born J a n. He joins si ster Kari, age 5. The family lives in Shepherd, Mont. He joins sister Amy age 4. S h e joins brother Jacob years.

Habedank '66 Kathryn Czyhold '66 of Tacoma, Wash. She joins sister Silke Kristine 1 Miller '64 R hoda Pappajohn '65 of Eatonville, Wash. He joins brother Jon age 3. Tass y ' 64 T i n De m ps ter of Puyallup, W it! He joins sister JuJie M arie who is 2 years old. He joins a br her Eri. Was h. Pictured are B a kken and the d a ncer who accomp anies him, Susan Vernier. Jo seph s Hospital in Taco m a , was the gue -t s p ea ker. Holmes ha. Africa , from She is married and the mother of six children.

Not an ordinary play, but one p ro d u c e d e peclally for youngsters by the PLU Children's Theatre. The ti Ie of the play is "Winnie the Pooh. The concept was locally originate d and is still directed by Prof. Eric NordhoIm, associate professor of c mm unication arts. Now a t r a d i t io n with a r e a youngs ters , C hildren 's Theatre ha enjoyed spec acular success.

The first performan e drew The following year 1 , children were on hand and the number has increased ste adily since. And , he i ndic ated , they have a moral. The seriousness with which the yo u n g s ters accept t he stories places a heavy responsibility on the d irector and the cast. For instance, a play sh ouldn't show that blowing fairy dust on a person can make him fl y , " No r d h o l m e x p l a i n e d.

They know what to expect from Children's Theatre, unlike unfamiliar touring produc t ions , w hich were the only children's drama available locally before There are other advantage s. Holding the production at PLU gives t h e y o u n g s t e r s a n e w en vironment away from their familiar classrooms. E mphasis on audience deportment is also a learning experience. Nordholm gives a great deal of credit to the teachers for using the experience as a broad learn-. He has often observed the behavior and etiquette of the children who have been coached well before coming to the theater.

The a rtwork h a s h e l p e d Nordholm and hi casts maintain artistic standards and determine w he the r the pla y 's message is getting across. In some cases changes have b e e n m a d e b e t w e e n pe rformances b ecause of what the artwork reflected. Thls spring the public performances will be held Saturday, March 1 , at 1 a.

Maybe a reliving of childhood experiences is good for all of us. M a n y Clorpenn ing stage adapta ions of ch ildren 's classics are still used a t P L U a n d ot h e r c hil d ren ' s theatre groups a ro u n d t h e country. Nordholm was also steered into the study of design and produ tion by the Goodman faculty.

He i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m o s t set designs used by the various PLU drama groups and his standards of excellence in this area have long been recognized. Many o f Nord holm ' s for m e r c a s t m e m b ers have returned t o recent productions as teac hers and parents of s mall children. And after 20 years , it is l ikely that t here will be some parents in the audience this week who were among the youngsters a tt e n d i n g t h o s e f i r s t P L U Children' S Theatre productions in the late '50's.

Merriam-Webster may be p r e s sured into a re - w r i te i f it persists in referring to hicks as " aw k w a rd provincial people. The 6'-4 senior guard i s also the a n tit h e s i s of a w kwardness, as any opposing guard , once burned , would attest. Hicks became the most prolific Lute scorer in ten years this past season, scorching the interior of the nets for points, a H e ' s a ci nch to achieve bigger honors when the post-season accolades unroll this year.

Twice an All-Olympic League selection as a center, Tony, by his own admission, just went through t h e m o tions academically his final year and let a o n c e respectable grade point average slip below the Stanford standard s. J unior college seemed for Tony the route to go. T o n y was t w i c e an all-l e a g u e selection a t SFCC and i n his final sea son led the Spartans to the runnerup spot at the state j unior college tournament.

L u n d g a a rd met Tony a nd h i s parents a t the tourney and knew he had a plum when Hicks gave PLU the nod. Some observers mused that the left-hander should have been investigated by the FAA for flying indoors. No PLU wrestler made the finals, but the Lutes had three thirds and five fourth place performance s.

The Lady Lutes, affiliated with the Northwest College Women 's Sports A s s o c i a t i o n , h a v e been getting over 20 points per game from t h e L a k e wo o d s e n i o r. Ano ther senior, Dianne Quast, has p rovided the board strength. Abe, named as a first team pick o n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o l l e g i a te Soccer Conference all-star squad , was, in , the first player from the Pacific N o r t h w e s t e v e r selected to All-Far West.

Abe was also a second team pick that year. The Lutes, overall, with one game re maining got 1 0 10 points from Hicks and Byrd both seniors. Hicks see related story bucketed points while Byrd threw in Lundgaard 's locals opened the season on a winning note, running off 12 unanswered points in the first half to trip Simon Fraser Tony Hicks inserted 21 points through the iron.

Lute rebounding w o e s b e g a n to show the next night. HICks led the way again with Junior center Randy Sund berg s nared 20 rebounds and Hicks canned 24 points in the Lutes ' overtime win over St. Martin's in La cey. O ut-boarded for the third time in four outings, PLU fell to Western Hicks had 22 counters. Hicks was high with 30 points. Tony Hicks led the way with 24 points , five Lutes hitting double figures.

PLU nearly frittered away a 23 point lead but held on for a win over Eastern. Jeff Byrd netted Byrd had 21 points in a losing cause. In the league opener the Lutes kept up steps with run-and-gun. Hicks and Byrd hit for 26 and Hicks connected for Hicks and Byrd posted 31 and 27 point nights to knock off College of Idaho Byrd canned 25 points.

It was the most points ever scored br two teams in a PLU game. HIcks and Byrd, with 32 and 29 combined for a modern record single game dual performance. Hicks hooped HICks a g a m was the top point producer with 1 9. B yrd and Hicks crimped the cords for 26 points each. Puget Sound jumped off to a lead in the early moments and coasted to an win.

Hicks canned 26 for the Lutes. PL U finished sixth as a team at the national meet a year ago. G ary Hafer's women swimmers also came up with a n a t i o n a l q u a l ifier. F reshman Jane Miller, from Salem , Ore. T h e Lutes, in dual matches last year, have won three straight conference t i t l e s and will be defending the NAIA District 1 crown.

Heir apparent to the Carlson reign is Brad Topp. The Sumner senior made it to the third round in both singles and doubles at the nationals, where the Lutes placed thi rteenth. Junior Mark Ludwig teamed with Carlson as district doubles kings. Track mentor Paul Hoseth can count on points in the discus and j u m p i n g e vents.

PLU IS expected to be stronger in both sprints and distance events this season. Lute baseballers experienced a disappointing season l a s t year. Coaches Jim Kittilsby and Ed Anderson are encouraged by the return of 14 lettermen and a record turnout which incl udes s ey e r a l pro m i s i n g freshmen.

WIth a tighter infield defens e e? Seniors Henry Gutierrez and Mike Berger head the mound corps. Jean Brodie , " East vold Aud. Gene Gra n! Luwrence lIouge. Richard I'ells Dr. Richard Jun gkuntz ,. P aul H oglund Mr. Robert Ri dder Mr. Gerald Schimke Dr. Roy Schwarz Rev. A l fred Stont! Warren Str in Mr. George Wade. Walton Berton. Philip I ordqui'I , Dr. Emmel Eklwid, U!

Nomlan Flnlel , AI Mr. Richard Jungkuntz. A cting re iden t. Milton Nes vig Re ' Hal' ey Ne. Di rector , CoUegi um. Luc ill e Giroux. Di rector, Uni. Director , Alunmi Relati ns James L. Edi l or James Kltti l sby. Sports E i tor. Kenneth iJunmire, Darrel Roa. Slaff Ph tographers O. Pa II Porter. Published six times annually by Pacific Lutheran University, P. Box , Tacoma, Wash. Second class postage paid at Tacom a , Wash. Helsinki , Finland , w a s a t o u c h s t o n e f O l' a g r o u p f American college students on a tour of the So viet Union this past January.

Service was poor. People w er e scowling. L e a vi n g the Soviet U n ion , Helsinki seemed like a different place. E ven the sun seemed to shine brighter. K i n g a n d students w ere asked what there was about the tour that had the most meaning for t h e m. W h a t i n c i d e n t s o r e xperi e n c e s had affected their attitudes about the Soviet Union?

Yet even those n e w i tems look like year-old items here. S h e r e c a l l e d h a vi n g to fight, squeeze and elbow her way into a book store simply because one new title had come out a n d everyone wanted it.

Throughout the Soviet U n i o n stores are full o f goods that are not sellin g. Qual ity and assortm e n t , n o t price, i s the major factor, though prices are high. Another major impression was the disciplined way the people behaved. B u t it s e e m e d t h a t wherever they w e n t , usually a t c e m e teries or historic a l s i t e s , Lenin 's Tomb in particular, long lines of people waited patiently and quietly to pay their respects.

I t a l s o s e e m s l i k e they're continually trying to say, ' See what the Nazis did to us. The tour was sponsored by the Field Institute of the Citizen ' s Exchange Corps, a people-to-people exchange organi zation h e a d q uartere d i n New York City.

Officiall y they accept all Soviet policy. On the pos i t ive side, King i n d i c ated , t h e So viet U n ion h a s m ade ubstantial progress in its standard of living, j u s t in the past five years. This is borne out by statis tics, but it i s also appare nt by observing what the people on the street are wearing , he said.

King was also impressed with the mass transit system in Soviet cities, which he believe s i s not matched anywhere in the Wes t. The group also w a s a b l e t o meet with government officials, a rt i s t s , m a n agers and churc h leaders. There is no Lutheran church in R u s s i a , b u t t here are m a n y Lutherans in Latvia , K i n g pointed out.

It was a relief for her to consciously drop her guard. Several of the students asked indicated that they would like to go back - " in the summer! During our stay I kept a journal, h a v i n g l e a r n e d h o w quickly I forget details a n d h ow easily I confuse persons, places and e v e n ts. A random e ntry suggests the v a r i e t y of o u r experiences : Thursda y, Marc h 7. Tomorrow i t w i l l be two alendar months since we left the U.

I t ' s only about 3 S miles , but the road i s so winding a nd there are so m ny stops and crossings that ne can ' t m a ke very good time. T h e cathedral a t Worce t e r i s ma rvelous although the exterior stone has deteriora ted badly. F o r t u n a t e l y just o n e section is closed because of restoration.

We were properly impressed by the tomb of King Continued on Page 5. Today the Bleiriana plums were in bloom, and in spite of the he a v y s k y ; t h e v i e w o f t h e c athedral and adjacent monastery ruins framed by their p i n k flowers w a s c heerful and spring-like. We bought a copy of it for five pound s. Contrary to my expectati o n , S h a ke s p e a re ' s signature does not appear on it. In the floor of the choi r , directly beneath the sun, ironicall y , is the s mall bronze m a r ke r o v e r the g ra v e of the Yorkist Prince of Wales, murdered by t h e henchmen of the usurping king.

He said that the bodies of Clarence and his w i fe had b e e n d u g u p many years later in order to bury. Now a glass box fastened to the wall of the crypt holds the bones o f the D u k e and h i s wife. There were h o l e s p u r p o r t e d to b e f r o m arrows which had pierced even that heavy metal.

After relaxing a bit w e prepared what Kathy says i s her favorite dinner - hambu r gers. We got rolls at S a i n s bury ' s in Worces ter - they ' re called ' ba p s ' - which a r e just about like our hamburger buns at home. Y e s t e rd a y Marge baked two loaves o f white bread so we haven't yet had to go without. I think we bought the last package of yeast in town.

To the Roman Wall across the north of E ngland. And to the great cities of E ngland - London, Birmingham and Southampton. Furness Ab bey in northwest England the ab bey is f a m i l iar to a nyone w h o knows Wordsworth's poetry. Man 's activities can shift the balance one way or the other. The burning of coal, oil and gas adds c a r bo n d i oxide , w h i c h h e l p s retain more heat.

A rise o f a few degrees in average temperature could melt polar ice caps and drown coastal cities. In fact, earth ' s temperature seems to be dropping a fraction of a degree during recent decades. T h i s c a u ses m ore sunlight to be reflected back into space before the earth is warmed. Worse weather and disastrous droughts may be part of a natural c ycle which c o u l d great l y exacerbate the world food crisis.

T b sun ' s heat e aporates wa er fr m the oceans to renew the rivers which give us hydroe l e c t ri pow e r. G reen plants convert sunshine into food, material and fuel, and were the original source of our fossil fuels coal, oil and gas. Solar energy is our only ultimate renewable resource. All energy that i used by man ends up as heat. Direct utilization of solar energy is the ideal way to o b tain useful energy with the least possible effect on local heat balances.

Of all applicatio ns o f s o l a r energy , heating and cooling of b u i ld i n g s s e e m s n e a r e s t t o potential large scale application. Large power or fuel distribution systems are not r e q u ired to p u t to w o r k t h e sunshine that already falls on the buildings and grounds. Wind ws may be omitted on the north wall, sm al l windows are used on the eas and west, and large ones are used on the south. The roof overhang over the south wi n d ow is c a lc ulated to g i v e tot I s h a d!

These face south and are tilted at an a ngle equal to the latitude plus 1 0 degrees. Air or water is circulated through the collector and is heated as high as degre es.

MSW BETTING RULES FOR ROULETTE

Furthermore, they suggested that Varto segment in the Varto Fault Zone was most probably not broken in earthquake. This study is purely focused on the field geology and trenching survey for the investigation of Varto earthquake. Because of the thick volcanic cover on the area around Varto, surface rupture has only been detected by trenching survey.

Consequently, detailed geological work in the field and trenching survey indicate that. Observing earthquakes triggered in the near field by dynamic deformations. We examine the hypothesis that dynamic deformations associated with seismic waves trigger earthquakes in many tectonic environments. Our analysis focuses on seismicity at close range within the aftershock zone , complementing published studies of long-range triggering.

Our results suggest that dynamic triggering is not confined to remote distances or to geothermal and volcanic regions. Long unilaterally propagating ruptures may focus radiated dynamic deformations in the propagation direction. Therefore, we expect seismicity triggered dynamically by a directive rupture to occur asymmetrically, with a majority of triggered earthquakes in the direction of rupture propagation. Bilaterally propagating ruptures also may be directive, and we propose simple criteria for assessing their directivity.

We compare the inferred rupture direction and observed seismicity rate change following 15 earthquakes M 5. Nine of these mainshocks had clearly directive, unilateral ruptures. Of these nine, seven apparently induced an asymmetric increase in seismicity rate that correlates with the rupture direction. The two exceptions include an earthquake preceded by a comparable-magnitude event on a conjugate fault and another for which data limitations prohibited conclusive results.

Similar but weaker correlations were found for the bilaterally rupturing earthquakes we studied. Although the static stress change also may trigger seismicity, it and the seismicity it triggers are expected to be similarly asymmetric only if the final slip is skewed toward the rupture terminus.

For several of the directive earthquakes , we suggest that the seismicity rate change correlates better with the dynamic stress field than the static stress change. Studies of earthquakes and microearthquakes using near-field seismic and geodetic observations. The Centroid-Moment Tensor CMT method allows an optimal point-source description of an earthquake to be recovered from a set of seismic observations , and, for over 30 years, has been routinely applied to determine the location and source mechanism of teleseismically recorded earthquakes.

The CMT approach is, however, entirely general: any measurements of seismic displacement fields could, in theory, be used within the CMT inversion formulation, so long as the treatment of the earthquake as a point source is valid for that data.

We modify the CMT algorithm to enable a variety of near-field seismic observables to be inverted for the source parameters of an earthquake. The first two data types that we implement are provided by Global Positioning System receivers operating at sampling frequencies of 1,Hz and above. When deployed in the seismic near field, these instruments may be used as long-period-strong-motion seismometers, recording displacement time series that include the static offset.

We show that both the displacement waveforms, and static displacements alone, can be used to obtain CMT solutions for moderate-magnitude earthquakes , and that performing analyses using these data may be useful for earthquake early warning. We also investigate using waveform recordings - made by conventional seismometers deployed at the surface, or by geophone arrays placed in boreholes - to determine CMT solutions, and their uncertainties, for microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing.

A similar waveform inversion approach could be applied in many other settings where induced seismicity and microseismicity occurs.. Post earthquake recovery in natural gas systems San Fernando Earthquake. In this paper a concise summary of the post earthquake investigations for the San Fernando Earthquake is presented.

The effects of the earthquake upon building and other above ground structures are briefly discussed. Then the damages and subsequent repairs in the natural gas systems are reported. The Mw 6. Recently, progress has been made to demonstrate feasibility and benefits of including real-time GPS rtGPS in earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. While most concepts have yet to be integrated into operational environments, the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory is currently running an rtGPS based finite fault inversion scheme in true real-time, which is triggered by the seismic-based ShakeAlert system and then sends updated earthquake alerts to a test receiver.

We review G-larmS' performance during this event and for 13 aftershocks, and we present rtGPS observations and real-time modeling results for the main shock. The first distributed slip model and a magnitude estimate of Mw5. The system continued to re-estimate the magnitude once every second: it increased to Mw5. In February , a consortium of U.

In May , an international collaboration of French, Portuguese, and U. Detailed focal depth and mechanism information, however, remain elusive due to the complexities of seismo-acoustic propagation paths. Nonetheless, recent analyses Dziak, ; Park and Odom, indicate fault parameter information is contained within the T-wave signal packet.

First results show earthquake energy is well represented by the acoustic energy of the T-waves, however T-wave codas are significantly influenced by acoustic propagation effects and do not allow a direct determination of the seismic magnitude of the earthquakes. Second, there appears to be a correlation between T-wave acoustic energy, azimuth from earthquake source to the hydrophone, and the radiation pattern of the earthquake 's SH waves.

These preliminary results indicate there is a relationship between the T-wave observations and earthquake source parameters, allowing for additional insights into T. We investigate the temporal evolution of hydrologic properties of the 2 km deep Arbuckle Group, the principal target in Oklahoma for saltwater disposal resulting from oil and gas production. Specifically, we look for changes to the hydrologic system associated with local earthquakes at two monitoring wells Payne07 and 08 near Cushing, Oklahoma.

The wells were instrumented with pressure transducers starting in Aug. The observation period includes the 3 Sep Mw5. Previous studies have suggested the Mw5. Here, we use the water level response to solid Earth tides to estimate permeability and specific storage through time during the observation period. We measure the phase lag between the solid Earth tide and the water level changes and find that phase lag between the Earth tide and aquifer response decreases at the time of the Mw5.

Our results suggest permeability increased in the Arbuckle Group after the earthquake by a factor of 5. It is possible that in extreme cases there may be complex interaction between saltwater disposal, hydrologic systems , and earthquake rates that should be considered to better understand seismic hazard.

High resolution strain sensor for earthquake precursor observation and earthquake monitoring. This sensor is used for crust deformation measurement, which plays an important role in earthquake precursor observation. A demodulation algorithm based on wavelet domain cross-correlation is used to calculate the wavelength difference.

The reference FBG-FP is placed in a strain-free state closely to compensate the environment temperature fluctuation. A static-strain resolution of 1. As a result, clear solid tide signals and seismic signals can be recorded, which suggests that the proposed strain sensor can be applied to earthquake precursor observation and earthquake monitoring. An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night.

If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning EQW developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems , and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes.

This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate sps triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes.

Even a sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from M L 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications.

We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW. Coseismic and initial postseismic deformation from the Parkfield, California, earthquake , observed by global positioning system , electronic distance meter, creepmeters, and borehole strainmeters.

Consequently, fault-slip models using daily solutions overestimate coseismic slip. In addition, at 2 months and at 8 months following the mainshock, postseismic displacements are modeled as slip on the San Andreas fault with a lower bound on the moment exceeding that of the coseismic moment. Research on deformation precursors of earthquakes was of immediate interest from the middle to the end of the previous century. The repeated conventional geodetic measurements, such as precise levelling and linear-angular networks, were used for the study.

Many examples of studies referenced to strong seismic events using conventional geodetic techniques are presented in [T. Rikitake, ]. One of the first case studies of geodetic earthquake precursors was done by Yu. Meshcheryakov []. Rare repetitions, insufficient densities and locations of control geodetic networks made difficult predicting future places and times of earthquakes occurrences.

The characteristics of land surface deformation before, during, and after earthquakes have been obtained. The results prove the presence of anomalous deformations near their epicentres. The revealed heterogeneities can be considered as deformation precursors of strong earthquakes. According to historical data and proper research values of critical deformations which are offered to be used for seismic danger scale creation based on continuous GNSS observations are received in a reference to the mentioned large earthquakes.

It is shown that the approach has restrictions owing to uncertainty of the moment in the beginning of deformation accumulation and the place of expectation of another seismic event. Verification and clarification of the derived conclusions are proposed. Asthenosphere rheology inferred from observations of the Indian Ocean earthquake.

The concept of a weak asthenospheric layer underlying Earth's mobile tectonic plates is fundamental to our understanding of mantle convection and plate tectonics. However, little is known about the mechanical properties of the asthenosphere the part of the upper mantle below the lithosphere underlying the oceanic crust, which covers about 60 per cent of Earth's surface.

Great earthquakes cause large coseismic crustal deformation in areas hundreds of kilometres away from and below the rupture area. Subsequent relaxation of the earthquake -induced stresses in the viscoelastic upper mantle leads to prolonged postseismic crustal deformation that may last several decades and can be recorded with geodetic methods. The observed postseismic deformation helps us to understand the rheological properties of the upper mantle, but so far such measurements have been limited to continental-plate boundary zones.

Here we consider the postseismic deformation of the very large moment magnitude 8. In the first three years after the Indian Ocean earthquake , 37 continuous Global Navigation Satellite Systems stations in the region underwent horizontal northeastward displacements of up to 17 centimetres in a direction similar to that of the coseismic offsets.

However, a few stations close to the rupture area that had experienced subsidence of up to about 4 centimetres during the earthquake rose by nearly 7 centimetres after the earthquake. Our three-dimensional viscoelastic finite-element models of the post- earthquake deformation show that a thin kilometres , low-viscosity having a steady-state Maxwell viscosity of 0. Observations on water system and pipeline performance in the Limon area of Costa Rica due to the April 22, earthquake.

Technical report. The document focuses on earthquake damage to water and oil pipelines, water supply, and water treatment following the 22 April Costa Rica Earthquake. The moment magnitude 7. The report also provides an overview of the engineering aspects of the event and recovery activities.

Turbidity in the watershed which provides Limon's primary water supply increased to as high as 2. Cast iron, ductile iron and reinforced concrete cylinder pipe water transmission lines were damaged by both wave propagation and permanent ground deformation. Water distribution piping, also including PVC and galvanized iron, was similarly impacted.

Documentation and evaluation of that damage is described, and compared with empirical estimates from previous earthquakes. Twin mm 6 in , km long, oil transmission lines suffered only a single failure from wrinkling.

A description of the pipelines and the failure is provided. One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes , the booklet discusses earthquake -prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes , earthquake…. Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes.

Topics discussed include 1 geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; 2 description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and 3 prediction of earthquakes. Development of compact long-term broadband ocean bottom seismometer for seafloor observation of slow earthquakes. It is important to understand coupling between plates in a subduction zone for studies of earthquake generation.

Recently low frequency tremor and very low frequency earthquake VLFE were discovered in plate boundary near a trench. These events slow earthquakes in shallow plate boundary should be related to slow slip on a plate boundary. Therefore frequency band of observation is slightly narrow for slow earthquakes. We adopted seismic sensor with natural period of 20 seconds Trillium Compact Broadband Seismometer, Nanometrics.

Because tilt of OBS on seafloor can not be controlled due to free-fall, leveling system for seismic sensor is necessary. The broadband seismic senor has cylinder shape with diameter of 90 mm and height of mm, and the developed levelling system can mount the seismic sensor with no modification of shape.

The levelling system has diameter of mm and height of mm, which is the same size as existing levelling system of the LT-OBS. The levelling system has two horizontal axes and each axis is driven by motor. Leveling can be performed up to 20 degrees by using micro-processor Arduino. Resolution of levelling is less than one degree. The system immediately starts leveling by the power-on of controller. After levelling, the the seismic senor is powered and the controller records angles of levelling to SD RAM.

Then the controller is shut down to consume no power. Compact long-term broadband ocean bottom seismometer is useful for observation of slow earthquakes on seafloor. In addition. There are a lot of buildings which is not experienced severe earthquakes in urban area. In Hanshin-Awaji Kobe Earthquake , it was presumed that 80 percent or more of the person was dead immediately after the earthquake by building collapse. Also in Haiti, a lot of buildings deprived of the life of persons.

In order to prevent the earthquake damage of urban area, it is the most effective to make the building earthquake -proof. However, there are still a lot of buildings not made earthquake -proof in Japan though 15 years passed since Kobe Earthquake. In order to promote making of the building earthquake -proof, various approaches such as visualization of seismic hazard, education of disaster prevention and legal system for promotion are needed. We have developed the IT Kyoshin strong motion Seismometer for Building which is the observation system of the usual weak earthquake ground motion by installing a lot of acceleration sensors in building, and have been setting it up in some buildings of the University of Tokyo.

We have also developed the visualization tool that can reproduce the building vibration during earthquake from the observed data. By this tool, we can successfully show where is more shaking in the building or what is the feature of building vibration easily. Such information contributes to not only promotion of making building earthquake -proof but also promotion of disaster prevention action such as fixation of bookshelf, making the safety area in building, etc.

In addition, we proposed a concrete technique of the health investigation of buildings by using weak earthquake ground motion. Because there are 20 to 30 felt earthquakes in year in Tokyo area, it is possible to observe these building vibrations by using weak earthquake ground motions. In addition, we have developed the high sensitive ITK sensor which can observe from the microtremor to the felt earthquake in the place without the felt earthquake either.

This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra.

In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic. Lindsey, Nathaniel J. Our understanding of subsurface processes suffers from a profound observation bias: seismometers are sparse and clustered on continents. A new seismic recording approach, distributed acoustic sensing DAS , transforms telecommunication fiber-optic cables into sensor arrays enabling meter-scale recording over tens of kilometers of linear fiber length.

We analyze cataloged earthquake observations from three DAS arrays with different horizontal geometries to demonstrate some possibilities using this technology. In Fairbanks, Alaska, we find that stacking ground motion records along 20 m of fiber yield a waveform that shows a high degree of correlation in amplitude and phase with a colocated inertial seismometer record at 0.

Using an L-shaped DAS array in Northern California, we record the nearly vertically incident arrival of an earthquake from The Geysers Geothermal Field and estimate its backazimuth and slowness via beamforming for different phases of the seismic wavefield.

Lastly, we install a fiber in existing telecommunications conduits below Stanford University and show that little cable-to-soil coupling is required for teleseismic P and S phase arrival detection. Global observation of Omori-law decay in the rate of triggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes can be large, damaging, and lethal as evidenced by the shocks in Turkey and the events in El Salvador. In this study, earthquakes with M greater than 7.

Earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases occur at higher rates than background up to km away from the main-shock centroid. Earthquakes triggered by smaller quakes foreshocks also obey Omori's law, which is one of the few time-predictable patterns evident in the global occurrence of earthquakes.

These observations indicate that earthquake probability calculations which include interactions from previous shocks should incorporate a transient Omori-law decay with time. In addition, a very simple model using the observed global rate change with time and spatial distribution of triggered earthquakes can be applied to immediately assess the likelihood of triggered earthquakes following large events, and can be in place until more sophisticated analyses are conducted.

Evolution in the lineament patterns associated to strong earthquakes revealed by satellite observations. We are able to detect some changes in density and orientation of lineaments preceding earthquake events. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background.

The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments; nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust. Our analysis has shown that the system of lineaments is very dynamical, and the significant number of lineaments appeared approximately one month before an earthquake , while one month after the earthquake the lineament configuration returned to its initial state.

These features were not observed in the test areas that are free of any seismic activity in that period null hypothesis. Improvements of the offshore earthquake locations in the Earthquake Early Warning System. In the system started to provide warnings to the public in Taiwan via television and the cell phone. Online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 28 s for inland and offshore earthquakes , respectively.

However, offshore earthquakes were usually located poorly because only P-wave arrivals were used in the eBEAR system. Additionally, in the early stage of the earthquake early warning system , only fewer stations are available. The poor station coverage may be a reason to answer why offshore earthquakes are difficult to locate accurately. In the Geiger's inversion procedure of earthquake location, we need to put an initial hypocenter and origin time into the location program.

For the initial hypocenter, we defined some test locations on the offshore area instead of using the average of locations from triggered stations. We performed 20 programs concurrently running the Geiger's method with different pre-defined initial position to locate earthquakes. We assume that if the program with the pre-defined initial position is close to the true earthquake location, during the iteration procedure of the Geiger's method the processing time of this program should be less than others.

The results show that using pre-defined locations for trial-hypocenter in the inversion procedure is able to improve the accurate of offshore earthquakes. Especially for EEW system , in the initial stage of the EEW system , only use 3 or 5 stations to locate earthquakes may lead to bad results because of poor station coverage. In this study, the pre-defined trial-locations provide a feasible way to improve the estimations of. Borehole strain observations of very low frequency earthquakes.

These MW 3. We look for the strain they produce on timescales from about 1 to 30 minutes. First, we stack the strain produced by 13 VLFEs identified by a grid search moment tensor inversion algorithm by Ghosh et. However, even at these stations, the signal to noise in the stack is often low, and the records are difficult to interpret. Therefore we also combine data from multiple stations and VLFE locations, and simply look for increases in the strain rate at the VLFE times, as increases in strain rate would suggest an increase in the moment rate.

The minute duration is chosen as a compromise that averages out some instrumental noise without introducing too much longer-period random walk noise. Our results suggest a factor of 2 increase in strain rate--and thus moment rate--during the minute VLFE intervals. Further analyses are currently being carried out to better understand the evolution of moment release before, during, and after the VLFEs. Earthquakes -Rattling the Earth's Plumbing System. Hydrogeologic responses to earthquakes have been known for decades, and have occurred both close to, and thousands of miles from earthquake epicenters.

Water wells have become turbid, dry or begun flowing, discharge of springs and ground water to streams has increased and new springs have formed, and well and surface-water quality have become degraded as a result of earthquakes. Synthetic earthquake catalogs simulating seismic activity in the Corinth Gulf, Greece, fault system. The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is the basis of time-dependent modeling of earthquake recurrence on major faults. However, the characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data.

Few fault segments have long historical or paleoseismic records of individually dated ruptures, and when data and parameter uncertainties are allowed for, the form of the recurrence distribution is difficult to establish. The main features of our simulation algorithm are 1 an average slip rate released by earthquakes for every single segment in the investigated fault system , 2 heuristic procedures for rupture growth and stop, leading to a self-organized earthquake magnitude distribution, 3 the interaction between earthquake sources, and 4 the effect of minor earthquakes in redistributing stress.

The application of our simulation algorithm to the CGFS has shown realistic features in time, space, and magnitude behavior of the seismicity. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes , short-term clustering of both strong and smaller events, and a realistic earthquake magnitude distribution departing from the Gutenberg-Richter distribution in the higher-magnitude range.

Low frequency earthquakes LFE are detected in association with volcanic and tectonic tremor signals as impulsive, repeated, low frequency Hz events originating from localized sources. While the mechanism causing this depletion of the high frequency content of their signal is still unknown, this feature may indicate that the source processes at the origin of LFE are different from those for regular earthquakes. Tectonic LFE are often associated with slip instabilities in the brittle-ductile transition zones of active faults and volcanic LFE with fluid transport in magmatic and hydrothermal systems.

Key constraints on the LFE-generating physical mechanisms can be obtained by establishing scaling laws between their sizes and durations. We apply a simple spectral analysis method to the S-waveforms of each LFE to retrieve its seismic moment and corner frequency. The former characterizes the earthquake 's size while the latter is inversely proportional to its duration. The moment-corner frequency distribution compared to values reported in previous studies in tectonic contexts is consistent with the scaling law suggested by Bostock et al.

We then apply the same source- parameters determination method to deep volcanic LFE detected in the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Kamtchatka, Russia. The scaling observed for LFE suggests that they are generated by sources of nearly constant size with strongly varying intensities. Geological Survey USGS to determine and comprehend the scope of any major earthquake disaster anywhere in the world has been dramatically reduced to less than 30 min.

PAGER alerts consist of estimated shaking hazard from the ShakeMap system , estimates of population exposure at various shaking intensities, and a list of the most severely shaken cities in the epicentral area. These estimates help government, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses in the immediate aftermath of a significant earthquake.

This article describes the development of the models and demonstrates the loss estimation capability for earthquakes that have occurred since The empirical model relies on country-specific earthquake loss data from past earthquakes and makes use of calibrated casualty rates for future prediction. The semi-empirical and analytical models are engineering-based and rely on complex datasets including building inventories, time-dependent population distributions within different occupancies, the vulnerability of regional building stocks, and casualty rates given structural collapse.

The termination of deep earthquakes at a depth of km is a key feature for understanding the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes. The km deep 30 May , Ogasawara Bonin earthquake Mw 7. Synthetic seismograms indicate that the P waveforms depend on whether the earthquake is located above or below the km discontinuity.

In this study, I show that broadband recordings indicate that the earthquake may have occurred below the km velocity discontinuity. Recordings of the P wave from the strongest aftershock lack evidence for wave triplication expected when a subhorizontal discontinuity underlies the hypocenter.

Theoretical waveforms computed with a km discontinuity above the aftershock and mainshock match the observed waveforms more accurately. These observations may indicate earthquake ruptures due to mantle minerals other than olivine or strong deformation of the km phase transition. Is Your Class a Natural Disaster? It can be In cooperation with the U.

This is the same system used professionally by the USGS in its earthquake response operations. Utilizing this system , Penn State University students participating in natural hazard classes receive real-time alerts of worldwide earthquake events on cell phones distributed to the class.

The students are then responsible for reacting to actual earthquake events, in real-time, with the same data or lack thereof as earthquake professionals. The project was first implemented in Spring , and although it had an initial high intrigue and "coolness" factor, the interest of the students waned with time.

Through student feedback, we observed that scientific data presented on its own without an educational context does not foster student learning. In order to maximize the impact of real-time data and the accompanying e-media, the students need to become personally involved. Therefore, in collaboration with the Incorporated Research Institutes of Seismology IRIS , we have begun to develop an online infrastructure that will help teachers and faculty effectively use real-time earthquake information.

The Real-Time Earthquake Education RTEE website promotes student learning by integrating inquiry-based education modules with real-time earthquake data. The first module guides the students through an exploration of real-time and historic earthquake datasets to model the most important criteria for determining the potential impact of an earthquake.

Having provided the students with content knowledge in the first module, the second module presents a more authentic, open-ended educational experience by setting up an earthquake role-play situation. Through the Earthworm system , we have the ability to "set off. The focal mechanisms of the two earthquakes have no low angle nodal planes, which shows that the earthquakes are intraplate earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate. We observed coseismic horizontal displacement due to the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes by means of a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation, which is the first observation of coseismic seafloor displacement in the world.

We have developed a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation. The observation system is composed of 1 acoustic measurement between a ship transducer and sea-bottom transponders, and 2 kinematic GPS positioning of the observation vessel. We have installed a seafloor benchmark close to the epicenters of the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes. The benchmark is composed of three sea-bottom transponders. The location of benchmark is defined as the weight center of the three transponders. We can determine the location of benchmark with an accuracy of about 5 cm at each observation.

We have repeatedly measured the seafloor benchmark six times up to now: 1 July and , , 2 November , 3 January 19, , 4 May , 5 July , and 6 August and The Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes occurred during the above monitoring period. The coseismic horizontal displacement of about 21 cm toward SSE was observed at our seafloor benchmark. The displacement is 3. The monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation is effective to detect the deformations associated with earthquakes occurring in ocean areas.

When an earthquake occurs, seismic intensities SI are calculated first at each observation station and sent to the Data Management Center in different timing. The system begins the first estimation when the number of the stations observing the SI of 2. It estimates SI distribution, exposed population and earthquake damage on buildings by using basic data for estimation, such as subsurface amplification factors, population, and building information.

The series of the estimation is performed for each m square mesh and finally the estimated data is converted into information for each municipality. Since October , we have opened estimated SI, exposed population etc. In the previous system , we sometimes could not inspect the information of the surrounding areas out of the range suffered from strong motions, or the details of the focusing areas, and could not confirm whether the present information was the latest or not without accessing the website.

J-RISQ has been advanced by introducing the following functions to settle those problems and promote utilization in local areas or in personal levels. In addition, the website in English has been released. The information estimated.

An integrated observational site for monitoring pre- earthquake processes in Peloponnese, Greece. Preliminary results. Tsinganos, Kanaris; Karastathis, Vassilios K. We are presenting the first results of developing a new integrated observational site in Greece to study pre- earthquake processes in Peloponnese, lead by the National Observatory of Athens.

We have developed a prototype of multiparameter network approach using an integrated system aimed at monitoring and thorough studies of pre- earthquake processes at the high seismicity area of the Western Hellenic Arc SW Peloponnese, Greece. The initial prototype of the new observational systems consists of: 1 continuous real-time monitoring of Radon accumulation in the ground through a network of radon sensors, consisting of three gamma radiation detectors [NaI Tl scintillators], 2 nine-station seismic array installed to detect and locate events of low magnitude less than 1.

The radon increases systematically before the larger events. For example a radon anomaly was predominant before the event of Sep 28, M 5. The seismic array assists in the evaluation of current seismicity and may yield identification of foreshock activity. Thermal anomalies in satellite images are also examined as an additional tool for evaluation and verification of the Radon increase.

According to the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling LAIC concept, atmospheric thermal anomalies observed before large seismic events are associated with the increase of Radon concentration on the ground. Details about the integrating ground and space observations , overall performance of the observational sites, future plans in advancing the cooperation in observations will be discussed. The rupture location of a Mw 8 megathrust earthquake can dramatically change the near-source tsunami impact, where a shallow earthquake can produce a disproportionally large tsunami for its magnitude.

Because the locking pattern of the shallow Cascadia megathrust is unconstrained due to the lack of widespread seafloor geodetic observations , near-source tsunami early warning systems need to be able to identify shallow, near-trench earthquakes. Onshore GPS displacements provide low frequency ground motions and coseismic offsets for characterizing tsunamigenic earthquakes , however the one-sided distribution of data may not be able to uniquely determine the rupture region.

We examine how augmenting the current real-time GPS network in Cascadia with different offshore station configurations improves static slip inversion solutions for Mw 8 earthquakes at different rupture depths.

Two offshore coseismic data types are tested in this study: vertical-only, which would be available using existing technology for bottom pressure sensors, and all-component, which could be achieved by combining pressure sensors with real-time GPS-Acoustic observations. We find that both types of offshore data better constrain the rupture region for a shallow earthquake compared to onshore data alone when offshore stations are located above the rupture.

However, inversions using vertical-only offshore data tend to underestimate the amount of slip for a shallow rupture, which we show underestimates the tsunami impact. Including offshore horizontal coseismic data into the inversions improves the slip solutions for a given offshore station configuration, especially in terms of maximum slip. This suggests that while real-time GPS-Acoustic sensors may have a long development timeline, they will have more impact for inversion-based tsunami early warning systems than bottom pressure sensors.

We also conduct sensitivity studies using kinematic models with varying rupture speeds and rise times as a proxy. A comparison among observations and earthquake simulator results for the allcal2 California fault model. Tullis, Terry. In order to understand earthquake hazards we would ideally have a statistical description of earthquakes for tens of thousands of years.

The question is, how realistic are these simulated histories? This purpose of this paper is to begin to answer that question. We compare the results between different simulators and with information that is known from the limited instrumental, historic, and paleoseismological data. The simulators appear to pass this necessary test. This suggests that they represent realistic behavior. Different assumptions concerning the constitutive properties of the faults do result in enhanced capabilities of some simulators.

This paper describes the results of running four earthquake simulators that are described elsewhere in this issue of Seismological Research Letters. A discussion of P- and S-waves seems an ubiquitous part of studying earthquakes in the classroom. Textbooks from middle school through university level typically define the differences between the waves and illustrate the sense of motion. While many students successfully memorize the differences between wave types often utilizing the first letter as a memory aide , textbooks rarely give tangible examples of how the two waves would "feel" to a person sitting on the ground.

One reason for introducing the wave types is to explain how to calculate earthquake epicenters using seismograms and travel time charts -- very abstract representations of earthquakes. Even when the skill is mastered using paper-and-pencil activities or one of the excellent online interactive versions, locating an epicenter simply does not excite many of our students because it evokes little emotional impact, even in students located in earthquake -prone areas. Despite these limitations, huge numbers of students are mandated to complete the task.

At the K level, California requires that all students be able to locate earthquake epicenters in Grade 6; in New York, the skill is a required part of the Regent's Examination. Recent innovations in earthquake early warning systems around the globe give us the opportunity to address the same content standard, but with substantially more emotional impact on students.

I outline a lesson about earthquakes focused on earthquake early warning systems. The introductory activities include video clips of actual earthquakes and emphasize the differences between the way P- and S-waves feel when they arrive P arrives first, but is weaker. I include an introduction to the principle behind earthquake early warning including a summary of possible uses of a few seconds warning about strong shaking and show examples from Japan.

Students go outdoors to simulate P-waves, S-waves, and occupants of two different cities who are talking to one another on cell phones. Recent deployments of broadband seismographs in the POLENET project have allowed passive seismic techniques, such as receiver function analysis and surface wave dispersion, to be widely utilized to infer crustal and mantle velocity structure across much of the WARS and West Antarctica.

In late , 34 broadband seismographs were deployed atop the ice shelf to jointly study deep Earth structure and the dynamics of the ice shelf. Ice shelf conditions present strong challenges to broadband teleseismic imaging: 1 The presence of complicating signals in the microseism through long-period bands due to the influence of ocean gravity waves; 2 The strong velocity contrasts at the ice-water and water-sediment interfaces on either side of the water layer give rise to large amplitude reverberations; 3 The water layer screens S-waves or P-to-S phases originating from below the water layer.

We present an initial analysis of the first teleseismic earthquake arrivals collected on the ice shelf at the end of the field season from a limited subset of these stations. Earle, P. The U. This Comprehensive Catalog ComCat provides a unified earthquake product while preserving attribution and contributor information.

ComCat contains hypocenter and magnitude information with supporting phase arrival-time and amplitude measurements when available. Higher-level products such as focal mechanisms, earthquake slip models, "Did You Feel It? Throughout the past few years, a concentrated effort has been underway to expand ComCat by integrating global and regional historic catalogs.

The number of earthquakes in ComCat has more than doubled in the past year and it presently contains over 1. We will provide an overview of catalog contents and a detailed description of numerous tools and semi-automated quality-control procedures developed to uncover errors including systematic magnitude biases, missing time periods, duplicate postings for the same events, and incorrectly associated events. Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed.

The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. Earthquake early warning EEW systems are one of the most effective ways to reduce earthquake disaster. Earthquake magnitude estimation is one of the most important and also the most difficult parts of the entire EEW system. The P d value can also be used to estimate the peak ground motion of velocity, then warning information can be released to the public rapidly, according to the estimation results.

In order to insure the stability and reliability of magnitude estimation results, we propose a compatibility test according to the natures of these two parameters. The reliability of the early warning information is significantly improved though this test. Horiuchi et al. REIS determines hypocenter locations and earthquake magnitudes automatically within a few seconds after P waves arrive at the closest station and calculates focal mechanisms within about 15 seconds.

The results by the two systems are merged. This study examines the rapidity and credibility of REIS by analyzing the earthquakes which occurred around the Japan Islands since with magnitude larger than 3. REIS re-determines hypocenter parameters every one second according to the revision of waveform data.

Here, we discuss only about the results by the first reports. On rapidness, our results show that about 44 percent of the first reports are issued within 5 seconds after the P waves arrives at the closest stations. Note that this 5-second time window includes time delay due to data package and transmission delay of about 2 seconds. REIS waits till two stations detect P waves for events in the network but four stations outside the network so as to get reliable solutions.

For earthquakes with hypocentral distance less than km, 55 percent of earthquakes are warned in 5 seconds and 87 percent are warned in 10 seconds. Most of events having long time delay are small and triggered by S wave arrivals. About 80 percent of events have difference in epicenter distances less than 20km relative to JMA manually determined locations.

Because of the existence of large lateral heterogeneity in seismic velocity, the difference depends. Quasi-dynamic earthquake fault systems with rheological heterogeneity. Seismic risk and hazard estimates mostly use pure empirical, stochastic models of earthquake fault systems tuned specifically to the vulnerable areas of interest.

Although such models allow for reasonable risk estimates, such models cannot allow for physical statements of the described seismicity. In contrary such empirical stochastic models, physics based earthquake fault systems models allow for a physical reasoning and interpretation of the produced seismicity and system dynamics. Recently different fault system earthquake simulators based on frictional stick-slip behavior have been used to study effects of stress heterogeneity, rheological heterogeneity, or geometrical complexity on earthquake occurrence, spatial and temporal clustering of earthquakes , and system dynamics.

Here we present a comparison of characteristics of synthetic earthquake catalogs produced by two different formulations of quasi-dynamic fault system earthquake simulators. Both models are based on discretized frictional faults embedded in an elastic half-space. While one 1 is governed by rate- and state-dependent friction with allowing three evolutionary stages of independent fault patches, the other 2 is governed by instantaneous frictional weakening with scheduled and therefore causal stress transfer.

We analyze spatial and temporal clustering of events and characteristics of system dynamics by means of physical parameters of the two approaches. HF Doppler observations of acoustic waves excited by the earthquake. Ichinose, T. Ionospheric disturbances caused by the earthquake of a relatively small and large epicentral distance have been detected by a network of HF-Doppler sounders in central Japan and Kyoto station, respectively. The HF-Doppler data of a small epicentral distance, together with the seismic data, have been used to formulate a mechanism whereby ionospheric disturbances are produced by the Urakawa-Oki earthquake in Japan.

Comparison of the dynamic spectra of these data has revealed experimentally that the atmosphere acts as a low-pass filter for upward-propagating acoustic waves. By surveying the earthquakes for which the magnitude M is larger than 6. As almost all these effects have occurred in the daytime, it is considered that it may result from the filtering effect of the upward-propagating acoustic waves. Possible deep fault slip preceding the Parkfield earthquake , inferred from detailed observations of tectonic tremor.

Earthquake predictability depends, in part, on the degree to which sudden slip is preceded by slow aseismic slip. Recently, observations of deep tremor have enabled inferences of deep slow slip even when detection by other means is not possible, but these data are limited to certain areas and mostly the last decade. The region near Parkfield, California, provides a unique convergence of several years of high-quality tremor data bracketing a moderate earthquake , the magnitude 6.

Here, I present detailed observations of tectonic tremor from mid through that indicate deep fault slip both before and after the Parkfield earthquake that cannot be detected with surface geodetic instruments. The 26 May Yogyakarta earthquake fault observed by seismic data and satellite data based surface features. The nearby Opak River fault was thought to be the source of this earthquake disaster. However, no significant surface movement was observed along the fault which could confirm that this fault was really the source of the earthquake.

To investigate the earthquake source and to understand the earthquake mechanism, a rapid response team of the German Task Force for Earthquake , together with the Seismological Division of Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika and Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, had installed a temporary seismic network of 12 short period seismometers.

More than aftershocks were recorded during the 3-month campaign. Here we present the result of several hundred processed aftershocks. HypoDD software was used for hypocenters relocation to obtain high precision aftershock locations. Our aftershock distribution shows a system of lineaments in southwest-northeast direction, about 10 km east to Opak River fault, at km depth. The b-value map from the aftershocks shows that the main lineaments have relatively low b-value at the middle part which suggests this part is still under stress.

Bolland '58 P. Box Woodburn, OR Marvin D. Seat tle, W A 98 1 1 5 Luthe r T. Tacoma, WA 2 1 1 Dr. Strandness, J r. Ronald L. Student Repre enla ti " t! Steve Isaacson 2 1 3 -A. HKIS is an educational arm of the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod, which serves about students in grades kindergarten through twelve. About two-thirds of the students are American, but they also have Chinese s t udents a s weI! Mary Kaye is finding her work very satisfying and her involvement in the community varies from youth affairs committee of the American Chamber of Commerce to the vice-chairperson of the Hong Kong Career Masters Association and a huge research project which was initiated by a group of women students.

The Beacon is a weekly newspaper started last summer. It serves communities on the coast from Ocean Shores on the south to Taholah on the north. George s t i l l r e m a i n s very active in Olympia, Wash. He and his wife Edna moved from Portland, where they had l i v e d for m a ny y e a r s , to S e a t t l e in February. H e has been active in Tacoma civic affairs and is i mmediate past exalted ruler of Tacoma Elks Lodge He b e g a n h i s career i n i n the Lewis and Clark School District.

During the next 19 years, he was a teacher and elementary school principal. All American members h i p , based on superior production throughout , was open to only ten men out of a field force of over This is the fifth year that LeRoy has qualified for the All America honor.

Club m e m b ership was b a s e d on s u pe r i o r production throughout They have three school age children. Jim and Lori both teach elementary school and the entire. E r nie has worked for Hug hes Aircraft Company since January Their new children are Kara 1 0 , Michelle 6 a n d M a tthew 4. Husband, Norm, is director of materials in the A. Prior to his promotion Gordon was in charge of installment credit. He and his family will reside in Everett.

Georgia Bucholz i s t e a c h i n g a d u l t e d u c a t ion classes and working at Thousand Oaks High School. They have two sons, Steven 8 and David 7. V e r no n , Alexandria, Va. David is currently a member of the music faculty at PLU, and is also o r g a n i s t - c h o i r m a s t e r a t Christ Episcopal i n Tacoma, Wash. A third child was born to them on Dec. His name is Eric Anders. F R E I S H E I M is a s s o c i a t e p r o f e s s o r of b i o l o g i c a l chemistry at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio and is presently heading a research team at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center to probe the internal mechanisms of cancer cells in hope of finding better ways to tflck them into self destl'uction.

Ken is teaching in the School of C o m m unication at the University of Washington. Nancy plans to study specific learning disabilities at the U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n , I n s ti tute of Educarion. Their two ch ildren Lees a and Rob left with them. Anne c o ntinues as child pla ce men t so cial worker at McKin ley. They have one daughter, Karen age 3. They are living i n East Burlington, Wash. Gary also fills i n for vacationing pastors.

They have two children, Erik 6 years and Stephanie, 3 years. Dean i s on the board o f d irectors of R o u t t C o u n t y Memo rial Hospital. He has also passed his brokers exam for the State of Colorado. She and husband Wa yne have recently moved to Puyallup, Wash. GARY L. Kathryn i s a new b o a rd member of the Tacoma Youth Symphony and teaches piano privately at home. Judy is enjoying her role as a wife and mother and keeps busy with numerous church activities.

He lives in Seattle with his wife, Kathy, and their infant son, Rhett. He is studying under Dr. Richard Wennberg. His wife, Frances Burchfield x'68 and two children moved w i t h h i m to C a l i fo r n i a f r o m Oregon early in February.

T h e y moved t o a new home in September and have adopted a two-year old son from Vietnam at Christmastime. School District. His wife, Sharon, has finished her M. The kindergarten is a place where mothers can leave their children while they shop.

Dave is a flight instructor and is flying charter for "S kycraft, I nc. Chris is kept busy at home by son Peter, one year old. He is currently doing his internship and residency in Internal ;M e d i c i ne at the U n i v e r s i t y of U t a h Affiliated Hospitals. She also attends C o m m u n ity Chapel Bible College part time. In her " s pare time" she assists a local doctor with home deliveries in the Seattle area.

He has been called to the office as minister of St. Paul Lutheran Church, Alpena, Mich. Cole is on the staff at Zorzor, Liberia, where the Liberian government assi gned him at the Curran Lutheran Hos pit al at their request. They have two children, Jembaa Nyaboke 4 and Omandi 7 months. Nyarinda visited her home in Kenya this sum mer before their move to Liberia.

He assisted at the Christmas e ve c o m m u nion a n d c o n d u c t ed t h e service on Christmas day. H e and his wife Monika and infant son Jonas live in an a p a r t m e n t at the church. Prior to going to Portland they lived in Germany where John was working as a minister's iassistant i n a German Lutheran church. This i s the first time Monika has been in 'the United States. KIM D.

He is currently residing in the Kirkland area. Rick i s currently serving as associate p a s t o r a t Central Lutheran Church in E u g e n e. Her husband, Richard, is a car salesman in Puyallup, Wash. They have two children, Amy age 4 and Duff Joseph born June 22, She was a math instructor at PLU in Davis High School in Yakima, but she gave it up this year when their twin d a u ghters arrived on November 18, and is now a full-time mother and homemaker.

Her husband, Bud, is a hop broker and runs a fruit ranch. A l a n also attends Elmira College working on his master's degree in education. Miles works for the Veterans Administration and will complete his masters in public administration at the University of the Philippines in March. He is also attending Florida Technological U n i v e r s i t y p a r t t i m e. They are busy raising Perc heron work horses w h i c h they say a re m a k i n g a great comeback due to the energy crisis and ecology movements.

Judy received her master of arts in teaching at Lewis and Clark in Portland, Ore. They a re both teaching music in Tacoma, where they reside. They have one son, John Edward, who was born September 18, He also teaches piano and music theory. This is Cathy ' s fourth year of teaching in the Lynch School District. S he i s also chai r m a n o f t h e superintendent's council for the district this year.

She is also working on her graduate degree. Brew er, Ltd. His uffice is i n U mat ill a, O re. FRED R. He is practicing law in Phoenix, Ariz. He a n d his w i f e , Patricia, live o n Route 5 i n Port Angeles with their two children Matthew, age 2 and Marc 6 months. The family is living in Anacortes, Wash.

He will receive his masters in church history his spring. He is working as a n as sociate applicat ions analyst for Control Data Corporation. David has been promoted t o operations. Paula keeps busy at home with Shelley 4 years and Mark 22 mont hs. They hope to be back in the Pacific N rthwest in June.

He was born May 3, in Sidney, Nebr. He is survived by his widow, the former Linda Phillips of Tacoma. ROY A. TOWE '46, passed away Oct. At the time of her death Mrs. Towe was a research technologist in genetics at the University of W a shington. She was PLU student body president in the school year. She g r a d u ated in and later did graduate work in botany and genetics at the University of Washington. Rosella Wekell Ro bert B. Ch amber of Commerce, died on Jan.

PLU is grateful to D o u g l a s and to others like him who find satisfaction and enjoyment in sharing their talents and means for the advancement of the school. PLU benefited in co untl ess ways from her concern and involvem nt.

She was a positive example of the joy of giving. Wekell in Rosella Wekell delighted tho s e w h o knew her personally, and enriched many who never met her. Pacific Lutheran University is stronger and better because she chose to be a part of it. Wekell died on January 9, Blessed be her memory. Harold Ronning Mrs. Eline Morken M r s. In she was promoted to a s s o c i a t e p rofessor and director of the School of Nursing.

She retired in Morken was born in Cl ifford , N. She received a bachelor's degree from St. Olaf College Minn. Morken was assistant director of nursing at F a i r v i e w H o s p i t a l , M i nneapoli s 1 , and director of nursing at Deaconess Hospital, Spokane 1 , at Lutheran Hospital, Eau Claire, Wis. He later taught in the public schools in Oakland, Calif.

He was a practicing psychologist and counselor at his o w n c l i n i c in L o s A n g e l e s , a n d h e w a s a member of the staff at Lutheran Social S e rvices of Southern California at the time of his death. Ronning, who moved to Alberta, Canada, after his wife died in China. I t was with Dr. Ronning 's enthusiasm,. It was dedicated Sept. Ronning wrote several poems and articles which expressed his belief in the principle of cooperation, individually, soci ally a n d internationally.

Johnson of Tacoma on June 15, They live in University Place, Tacoma where they have just recently purchased a new home. Taylor, who is also an Army Nurse. Green on A u g. They live i n Duluth, Min n. DANA E. PAUL T. Both are attending PLU, she is a junior 10 the School of Nursmg and he is working on a master's degree in psychology.

The c;ouple lives in Tacoma, Wash. Lutheran of Moorehead, Minn. IS, Th ey live in Tacoma. Robert J. Thomas Episcopal Chul'ch, Medina, Wash. They now l ive on Mercer Island, Wash. A nd rew ' s Presbyterian C hu rc h in Portland , Ore. The oupJe will make their home In E verett. Swank were married Dec. Fred Schnaible were married January 4 , 1 97 5. They reside in E n d icott, Wash. R icbard R ouse '69 S ue Schillinger ' 7 1 girl born J a n.

He joins si ster Kari, age 5. The family lives in Shepherd, Mont. He joins sister Amy age 4. S h e joins brother Jacob years. Habedank '66 Kathryn Czyhold '66 of Tacoma, Wash. She joins sister Silke Kristine 1 Miller '64 R hoda Pappajohn '65 of Eatonville, Wash. He joins brother Jon age 3.

Tass y ' 64 T i n De m ps ter of Puyallup, W it! He joins sister JuJie M arie who is 2 years old. He joins a br her Eri. Was h. Pictured are B a kken and the d a ncer who accomp anies him, Susan Vernier. Jo seph s Hospital in Taco m a , was the gue -t s p ea ker. Holmes ha. Africa , from She is married and the mother of six children. Not an ordinary play, but one p ro d u c e d e peclally for youngsters by the PLU Children's Theatre. The ti Ie of the play is "Winnie the Pooh.

The concept was locally originate d and is still directed by Prof. Eric NordhoIm, associate professor of c mm unication arts. Now a t r a d i t io n with a r e a youngs ters , C hildren 's Theatre ha enjoyed spec acular success. The first performan e drew The following year 1 , children were on hand and the number has increased ste adily since.

And , he i ndic ated , they have a moral. The seriousness with which the yo u n g s ters accept t he stories places a heavy responsibility on the d irector and the cast. For instance, a play sh ouldn't show that blowing fairy dust on a person can make him fl y , " No r d h o l m e x p l a i n e d. They know what to expect from Children's Theatre, unlike unfamiliar touring produc t ions , w hich were the only children's drama available locally before There are other advantage s.

Holding the production at PLU gives t h e y o u n g s t e r s a n e w en vironment away from their familiar classrooms. E mphasis on audience deportment is also a learning experience. Nordholm gives a great deal of credit to the teachers for using the experience as a broad learn-. He has often observed the behavior and etiquette of the children who have been coached well before coming to the theater.

The a rtwork h a s h e l p e d Nordholm and hi casts maintain artistic standards and determine w he the r the pla y 's message is getting across. In some cases changes have b e e n m a d e b e t w e e n pe rformances b ecause of what the artwork reflected. Thls spring the public performances will be held Saturday, March 1 , at 1 a. Maybe a reliving of childhood experiences is good for all of us. M a n y Clorpenn ing stage adapta ions of ch ildren 's classics are still used a t P L U a n d ot h e r c hil d ren ' s theatre groups a ro u n d t h e country.

Nordholm was also steered into the study of design and produ tion by the Goodman faculty. He i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m o s t set designs used by the various PLU drama groups and his standards of excellence in this area have long been recognized. Many o f Nord holm ' s for m e r c a s t m e m b ers have returned t o recent productions as teac hers and parents of s mall children.

And after 20 years , it is l ikely that t here will be some parents in the audience this week who were among the youngsters a tt e n d i n g t h o s e f i r s t P L U Children' S Theatre productions in the late '50's. Merriam-Webster may be p r e s sured into a re - w r i te i f it persists in referring to hicks as " aw k w a rd provincial people. The 6'-4 senior guard i s also the a n tit h e s i s of a w kwardness, as any opposing guard , once burned , would attest.

Hicks became the most prolific Lute scorer in ten years this past season, scorching the interior of the nets for points, a H e ' s a ci nch to achieve bigger honors when the post-season accolades unroll this year. Twice an All-Olympic League selection as a center, Tony, by his own admission, just went through t h e m o tions academically his final year and let a o n c e respectable grade point average slip below the Stanford standard s.

J unior college seemed for Tony the route to go. T o n y was t w i c e an all-l e a g u e selection a t SFCC and i n his final sea son led the Spartans to the runnerup spot at the state j unior college tournament. L u n d g a a rd met Tony a nd h i s parents a t the tourney and knew he had a plum when Hicks gave PLU the nod. Some observers mused that the left-hander should have been investigated by the FAA for flying indoors. No PLU wrestler made the finals, but the Lutes had three thirds and five fourth place performance s.

The Lady Lutes, affiliated with the Northwest College Women 's Sports A s s o c i a t i o n , h a v e been getting over 20 points per game from t h e L a k e wo o d s e n i o r. Ano ther senior, Dianne Quast, has p rovided the board strength. Abe, named as a first team pick o n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o l l e g i a te Soccer Conference all-star squad , was, in , the first player from the Pacific N o r t h w e s t e v e r selected to All-Far West.

Abe was also a second team pick that year. The Lutes, overall, with one game re maining got 1 0 10 points from Hicks and Byrd both seniors. Hicks see related story bucketed points while Byrd threw in Lundgaard 's locals opened the season on a winning note, running off 12 unanswered points in the first half to trip Simon Fraser Tony Hicks inserted 21 points through the iron. Lute rebounding w o e s b e g a n to show the next night.

HICks led the way again with Junior center Randy Sund berg s nared 20 rebounds and Hicks canned 24 points in the Lutes ' overtime win over St. Martin's in La cey. O ut-boarded for the third time in four outings, PLU fell to Western Hicks had 22 counters.

Hicks was high with 30 points. Tony Hicks led the way with 24 points , five Lutes hitting double figures. PLU nearly frittered away a 23 point lead but held on for a win over Eastern. Jeff Byrd netted Byrd had 21 points in a losing cause. In the league opener the Lutes kept up steps with run-and-gun. Hicks and Byrd hit for 26 and Hicks connected for Hicks and Byrd posted 31 and 27 point nights to knock off College of Idaho Byrd canned 25 points. It was the most points ever scored br two teams in a PLU game.

HIcks and Byrd, with 32 and 29 combined for a modern record single game dual performance. Hicks hooped HICks a g a m was the top point producer with 1 9. B yrd and Hicks crimped the cords for 26 points each. Puget Sound jumped off to a lead in the early moments and coasted to an win.

Hicks canned 26 for the Lutes. PL U finished sixth as a team at the national meet a year ago. G ary Hafer's women swimmers also came up with a n a t i o n a l q u a l ifier. F reshman Jane Miller, from Salem , Ore. T h e Lutes, in dual matches last year, have won three straight conference t i t l e s and will be defending the NAIA District 1 crown. Heir apparent to the Carlson reign is Brad Topp. The Sumner senior made it to the third round in both singles and doubles at the nationals, where the Lutes placed thi rteenth.

Junior Mark Ludwig teamed with Carlson as district doubles kings. Track mentor Paul Hoseth can count on points in the discus and j u m p i n g e vents. PLU IS expected to be stronger in both sprints and distance events this season. Lute baseballers experienced a disappointing season l a s t year.

Coaches Jim Kittilsby and Ed Anderson are encouraged by the return of 14 lettermen and a record turnout which incl udes s ey e r a l pro m i s i n g freshmen. WIth a tighter infield defens e e? Seniors Henry Gutierrez and Mike Berger head the mound corps. Jean Brodie , " East vold Aud. Gene Gra n!

Luwrence lIouge. Richard I'ells Dr. Richard Jun gkuntz ,. P aul H oglund Mr. Robert Ri dder Mr. Gerald Schimke Dr. Roy Schwarz Rev. A l fred Stont! Warren Str in Mr. George Wade. Walton Berton. Philip I ordqui'I , Dr. Emmel Eklwid, U! Nomlan Flnlel , AI Mr. Richard Jungkuntz. A cting re iden t.

Milton Nes vig Re ' Hal' ey Ne. Di rector , CoUegi um. Luc ill e Giroux. Di rector, Uni. Director , Alunmi Relati ns James L. Edi l or James Kltti l sby. Sports E i tor. Kenneth iJunmire, Darrel Roa. Slaff Ph tographers O. Pa II Porter. Published six times annually by Pacific Lutheran University, P. Box , Tacoma, Wash.

Second class postage paid at Tacom a , Wash. Helsinki , Finland , w a s a t o u c h s t o n e f O l' a g r o u p f American college students on a tour of the So viet Union this past January. Service was poor. People w er e scowling. L e a vi n g the Soviet U n ion , Helsinki seemed like a different place. E ven the sun seemed to shine brighter.

K i n g a n d students w ere asked what there was about the tour that had the most meaning for t h e m. W h a t i n c i d e n t s o r e xperi e n c e s had affected their attitudes about the Soviet Union? Yet even those n e w i tems look like year-old items here. S h e r e c a l l e d h a vi n g to fight, squeeze and elbow her way into a book store simply because one new title had come out a n d everyone wanted it.

Throughout the Soviet U n i o n stores are full o f goods that are not sellin g. Qual ity and assortm e n t , n o t price, i s the major factor, though prices are high. Another major impression was the disciplined way the people behaved. B u t it s e e m e d t h a t wherever they w e n t , usually a t c e m e teries or historic a l s i t e s , Lenin 's Tomb in particular, long lines of people waited patiently and quietly to pay their respects.

I t a l s o s e e m s l i k e they're continually trying to say, ' See what the Nazis did to us. The tour was sponsored by the Field Institute of the Citizen ' s Exchange Corps, a people-to-people exchange organi zation h e a d q uartere d i n New York City.

Officiall y they accept all Soviet policy. On the pos i t ive side, King i n d i c ated , t h e So viet U n ion h a s m ade ubstantial progress in its standard of living, j u s t in the past five years. This is borne out by statis tics, but it i s also appare nt by observing what the people on the street are wearing , he said. King was also impressed with the mass transit system in Soviet cities, which he believe s i s not matched anywhere in the Wes t.

The group also w a s a b l e t o meet with government officials, a rt i s t s , m a n agers and churc h leaders. There is no Lutheran church in R u s s i a , b u t t here are m a n y Lutherans in Latvia , K i n g pointed out. It was a relief for her to consciously drop her guard. Several of the students asked indicated that they would like to go back - " in the summer! During our stay I kept a journal, h a v i n g l e a r n e d h o w quickly I forget details a n d h ow easily I confuse persons, places and e v e n ts.

A random e ntry suggests the v a r i e t y of o u r experiences : Thursda y, Marc h 7. Tomorrow i t w i l l be two alendar months since we left the U. I t ' s only about 3 S miles , but the road i s so winding a nd there are so m ny stops and crossings that ne can ' t m a ke very good time. T h e cathedral a t Worce t e r i s ma rvelous although the exterior stone has deteriora ted badly.

F o r t u n a t e l y just o n e section is closed because of restoration. We were properly impressed by the tomb of King Continued on Page 5. Today the Bleiriana plums were in bloom, and in spite of the he a v y s k y ; t h e v i e w o f t h e c athedral and adjacent monastery ruins framed by their p i n k flowers w a s c heerful and spring-like. We bought a copy of it for five pound s. Contrary to my expectati o n , S h a ke s p e a re ' s signature does not appear on it. In the floor of the choi r , directly beneath the sun, ironicall y , is the s mall bronze m a r ke r o v e r the g ra v e of the Yorkist Prince of Wales, murdered by t h e henchmen of the usurping king.

He said that the bodies of Clarence and his w i fe had b e e n d u g u p many years later in order to bury. Now a glass box fastened to the wall of the crypt holds the bones o f the D u k e and h i s wife. There were h o l e s p u r p o r t e d to b e f r o m arrows which had pierced even that heavy metal. After relaxing a bit w e prepared what Kathy says i s her favorite dinner - hambu r gers. We got rolls at S a i n s bury ' s in Worces ter - they ' re called ' ba p s ' - which a r e just about like our hamburger buns at home.

Y e s t e rd a y Marge baked two loaves o f white bread so we haven't yet had to go without. I think we bought the last package of yeast in town. To the Roman Wall across the north of E ngland. And to the great cities of E ngland - London, Birmingham and Southampton. Furness Ab bey in northwest England the ab bey is f a m i l iar to a nyone w h o knows Wordsworth's poetry. Man 's activities can shift the balance one way or the other.

The burning of coal, oil and gas adds c a r bo n d i oxide , w h i c h h e l p s retain more heat. A rise o f a few degrees in average temperature could melt polar ice caps and drown coastal cities. In fact, earth ' s temperature seems to be dropping a fraction of a degree during recent decades. T h i s c a u ses m ore sunlight to be reflected back into space before the earth is warmed.

Worse weather and disastrous droughts may be part of a natural c ycle which c o u l d great l y exacerbate the world food crisis. T b sun ' s heat e aporates wa er fr m the oceans to renew the rivers which give us hydroe l e c t ri pow e r. G reen plants convert sunshine into food, material and fuel, and were the original source of our fossil fuels coal, oil and gas.

Solar energy is our only ultimate renewable resource. All energy that i used by man ends up as heat. Direct utilization of solar energy is the ideal way to o b tain useful energy with the least possible effect on local heat balances. Of all applicatio ns o f s o l a r energy , heating and cooling of b u i ld i n g s s e e m s n e a r e s t t o potential large scale application.

Large power or fuel distribution systems are not r e q u ired to p u t to w o r k t h e sunshine that already falls on the buildings and grounds. Wind ws may be omitted on the north wall, sm al l windows are used on the eas and west, and large ones are used on the south. The roof overhang over the south wi n d ow is c a lc ulated to g i v e tot I s h a d!

These face south and are tilted at an a ngle equal to the latitude plus 1 0 degrees. Air or water is circulated through the collector and is heated as high as degre es. The heat is t h e n stored in large amounts of water, stones or earth. Either forced air or circulating hot water systems are used to warm the interior. T he heat energy collected can Continued o n Page 7.

The Puget Sound region is as poor as any in the lower 48 states in solar energy received, b u t even cloudy days provide si gnificant amounts. A succes sful solar house has been built in Coos Bay, Ore.

Seattle City Light is planning a demonstration house to provide accurate cost data. Solar houses are most attractive for people who can do much of the work themselves. To make a large scale impact on energy supply, solar energy needs to be used for generating electric power. The ideal method. W i l l i a m G id d i n g s , professor of chemistry aod chairman of the Division of Natural Sciences, has been teaching at P L U for 13 years.

These are now used for small amounts of electricity in remote place s , s u c h a s on satellites, navigational buoys and radio relay stations. The most promising syste m for solar power generation i n the near future seems to be the solar farm. The land area required would be less than that which would be strip mined to produce the same amount of electricity in a coal-fi red plant over its year life span.

The solar collectors would not d e stroy the land su rface , only shade it. The waste heat from the power plant would equal the heat now reflected fro m the de sert l an d s u rfa ce. The estim ated cost of sol a r power ' s again tentative, because no collectors are yet in large scale production. However, recent cost increases for nuclear plants may make nuclear power as expensive as solar power would be.

A national commit ment to the use of a bu ndant , renewa ble solar energy seems to be the logical w a y to m e et increased oeeu s without irreparable damage. Peterson As a theologian, Dr. Richard J mgkuntz i keenly aware of the p a f l i s t h a t befall one wh o attem ts erve tw m s ers.

As an educato , r. Jungku ntz has been expected t do just that during the pa s t y ar. He has done it, and has done it well. When asked a b U[ the pas. Jungkulltz ad mitted he saw the logic of the req uest. In addition , Dr.

H e assumed the respons i b i l i t y for c o n v e n i n g the council and developi ng the meeting agendas. I was working out of both offices. I d id not sit with the com m itt ee du ing a subs tant ial po n iun of their di eu iOIlS , but as they came t the ' n d , I indicated my informal c n. He also felt at the beginning of the year that the universit y l i m ate needed a tt ntion. There have a l so been a f e w p e son I d isappOintments In his role as a member of the Faith and Order Com mission of the World Co u n c i l of C h u r c h e s , he h a d hoped to attend the world meeting of the Commission in Africa last August, the month he took on his new responsibilities.

That wasn't possible. He hasn' t been able to get off ca mpus to meet with civic leaders and constituents as much as he had hoped. And his time at home has been minima l. Jungkuntz has served at PL U since 1 Louts , M o.

He ba ' taught three. The faculty has known what to expect ba sed on past associations , and they have had confidence in his leadership. As provost I'm feeding it i n at. It's awkwa rd , bu w i t h re asonable peopl ar un who und rstand the situation, you ork y o u r way t h rough i t , he added. Nevertheles has been a year that PLU has moved.

A major a c a de m i C step was realized this past month With the funding of a project to develop a trul y i n terdisci p l in a ry c o u r s e structure in the humanities see story page 9. The enrollment picture continues t o be b r i g h t , with full time equivalencies u p from lao t year.

Fun s Currie lum pe -ment a Dr. The latter will lead to full-semester interd isciplinary c o u r s e s at P L U nex t y e a r , according to Dr. Curtis Huber, project director and chairman of the PLU hu manities division. It is called "Pacifism : Its Roots and J ustifica tion. It would be taught, in this case, by professors from religion and philosophy. Each of the professors involved will develop and teach a one-week experimental interdisciplinary mini-course. There will be n o c h arge t o students taking the.

The proj ect should effectively retrain over 18 per cent of the entire u nivers i t y f a c u l t y a n d m o s t o f t h o s e who ordinarily teach humanities c o u r s e s , a ccording to Huber, and would. News Norweg. The latter is a style of painting similar to tole painting.

It was shot by Ed Hmderhe, who was beginning a ca reer with the PLU m a intena nce department that year. He retired in after 21 years on the PLU staff. Mortve d t , o f N o r w e g i a n heritage, grew up in Illinois near the place w h ere the origi n a l group o! Norwegian immigrants settled 10 The banquet will a l s o s p o t l i g h t s i n ging by the Normanna Male Chorus under the direction of Gunnar M almin,.

T h e p ro g r a m w i l l feature the crowning of the May Queen and the traditional folk dancing program presented by the PLU Mayfest Dancers. They came as l u m b e r m e n , industriali sts , s e a m e n , farmers, clergy and merchants. In an effort to preserve in the new territory two important and cherished values - church and education - they founded PLU 85 years ago. Alumni, friends and the public are invited to participate in the Ma y 3 festival.

Former students of Dr. Olsen are also invited to send in current bi graphical or news data for a chemi try dep a rtment a l umni compilation. There were more than 2, students in the competition. The Chicago, Ill. Miss Miller, 19, headed a list of 1 2 n e w s t u d e n t body officers elected for Seminary Calls Pastor Lathrop Rev.

Gordon Larhrop. He j oins a I S-mem ber faculty which serves a s t u d e n t b o d y o f 2 8 4 seminarians. Wartburg is one of the Am erican Lutheran C hurch ' s three seminarie s. Special attention will be given to the diverse political, social and economic aspects o f these developing countries, a ccording to Farmer. For further informa tion contact Dr.

And we take continued joy in exploring j ust w hat lively implications may flow from the j uxtaposition, " he wrote in Reflections. Ch rch official open l y regard the year-old pastor and s c holar as one of the outstanding potential leaders of the church, J u n gk u ntz i n d i c a ted.

In that role he is concerned with the Eucharistic prayers to be included in the new hymnal. In addition , the call to Wartburg is the second one he has received in the past year. Donald Taylor in He was the f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y m in i s t e r to be called by the then newly formed PLU Religious Life Council. Paul, Min n. Following graduate work at the University of Nij megen in the Netherlands, where he received a doctorandus c u m la ude in N e w T e s ta m e n t Studies, he served two years a s pastor of Grace Lutheran Church in Darlington, Wis.

The Religious Life Council is in t h e p r o c e s s o f selectin g a successor. That person will work in a t e a m m in i stry with R e v. James Beckman, current associate university minister. Invitations for appearances by the group have been received so far from churches in Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona and Alaska even though t o u r p l a n s are still i n their formative stages, according to Carol Hidy S u e s s , spokesperson for the group. As seniors a t P L U t h e y obtained the sponsorship of the university Alumni Association to u ndertake a tour, a n d t h e i r itinerary has grown each year.

Response to the group ' s music has been enthusiastic wherever they have appeared. A father i n Oregon said of their concert, " Our w hole family, from our six-year-old daughter to her grandmother, were entranced by their musical artistry and j oy. Without lowering their standards of musical excellence they went out of their way to include a song with.

A 1 9 7 4 P L U g r a d u a t e , s h e is on leave from a Danforth Fellowship under which she is studying for a doctorate in E nglish. D ea n w rites the vocal arrangements for " C a rol, Dean and Mark. Dean earned a bachelor o f m u s ic degree i n French horn performance at P LU last spring and is working toward a master of sacred music degree. O pportuni ties By Dr. More time allows more options. R a ted the s t rongest summer program among private colleges in the northwest, PLU Summer Sessions attracted 2, students last year, up from 1 , in During the s u m m e r , c l a s s e s are informa l , more flexible, less structured.

This year more than c o u r s e s , workshops and seminars are offered i n 20 subject a r e a s. The curriculum is o f the high quality offered during the regular school year. In addition to a broad selec tion of traditional courses, there is a variety of innovative, experimental offerings covering c o n t e m po r a ry i s s u e s a n d p e r s p e c t i v e s i n m a n y fiel d s.

Designed for both undergraduate and graduate students, the pro-. First session runs June 16 to J u l y 1 6. S e c o n d session begins July 17 and finishes Aug. The tour, July Aug. With t h e A m e r i c a n B ic e nt e n n i a l in mind, the workshop will explore the lives and beliefs of persons in American history who believed and practiced their faith in ways t h e y r e c o g n i z ed a s out o f t h e ordinary.

More than 40 visiti n g lecturers from around the country join the u n i v e r s i t y p ro f e s s o r s on t he summer school faculty. Over the years, one of the most traditional ways to make a gift while retaining some income for life is to establish a Charitable G ift A n nuity. The amount of that lifetime annuity is based on the a ge of the d o n o r when the gift i s made. Here is how a typic a l Charitable Gift Annuity works : M r s.

There are a number of benefits of establi shing a gift annuity : 1. You have the satisfaction of knowing that your gift is helping to further the efforts of Christian higher education. You are guaranteed payment for life. Here is a regular income you cannot outlive. Your payment will never be reduced. The amount you receive each year is unchangeable. You may receive estate tax savings. Many people have told me, " I ' d. Julv 1 8.

It covers a broad range of business problems rela t i n g to p l a n n i n g , finances , policies and personnel. All of the seminars fe a t u r e p rominent national consultants, members of a team of e x perts w h o h a v e offered the seminar series at locations throughout the country.

An additional a l u m s in dicated that they would participate but d i d not offer a s p eci fic d o l l a r figure. Results of the telethon put the. To c o n t m u e t o o ffer qu a l lty educati n in a hristian environment, PLU must grea tly inc rease the a mount of fi nancial support it receives. I n addition to the An nual Fund contribut i o n s. Nearly 2 0 per cent o f t h e New Directions fund income has been e a r m a r ked fo r support of the Robert A.

A s t h e knowledge e x pl o s i o n accelera tes and fu nds become m o r e s c a r c e , the task of maintaining an excellent l i brary collection becomes increasingly difficult. D o n o r s m a y desig nate t hei r gif for book s or otl r mat ials in the fields of their interes t s , 01' for the sup port of ge eral operati ng e, penses,.

Visit S. P l' night. M a ke a di rectory of Alumni available to the constituency. Have you ever stopped to think wha t all must go into a drive like Nevl Directions? Wh t makes i ul? Needs must be determi ned , goals esta blished , and the m dus ope randi set. I t is possible for a bril iant program to be a colossal f l o p. The task i s huge. We need an army of workers. One of the original g als of this dri ve was to talk wi th as m ny alum s as po 's i ble either person all y or by pho ne.

Y o given many hours 01 work t o a difficu l t t8 'k a nd t he job has been done w I I Many t hanks! I welcome the exercise because it forces me to evaluate the past and d r e a m a l i ttle for the futu r e. B e c a u s e of l i m i t a t i o n s , b o t h physical and fi nanc i a l , some of my drea ms based on desi res of the Alumni Board are curtailed, but usually we can prioritize and d o t h a t w h i c h is best for the association.

If after reading these you have any suggestions or comments the A l u m n i B o a rd would welcome. It is an important decision. Sinc ere hanks! Have a Homecoming reunion and banquet i n fal l. Sponsor and support lec t u r e s a n d sem i n a rs b y Distinguished Alu mni and others. Work with undergraduates in creati ng an i d e n t i t y w i t h t h e Alumni through proj ects such a s ca reer planning.

Make travel tours available to Alumni. Sponsor Golf and other special interest days. This we will do by : Bringing in 4 new members a. Send ing Christmas end-of-year mailing. A telethon to non-givers, done by Class. An end of Fiscal-year mailing. Fy nboe '49 1 Alfaretta S. Tacoma, WA Lawrence J. Jeff Probstfield '63 2 4 1 2 Hu mboldt Ave. Minneapoli s , M N 6 1 2 Chap.

Нужные betting lines week 5 nfl было

Help Create Join Login. Application Development. Operations Management. IT Management. Project Management. Resources Blog Articles. Menu Help Create Join Login. Open Source Commercial. Translations Translations English 3 Italian 1. NET 1. Freshness Freshness Recently updated 2. Learn More. The culmination of over 30 years of experience, ENVISION utilises the most up-to-date technologies to empower aviation decision-makers by providing them with helpful and informative data that adds value to their organisation.

Our solution comprises of 9 modules that can either be purchased separately or together as part of an integrated solution. Latest version TAGS: IP Resolver, IP sniffer, IP grabber, IP puffer, lanc v2, playstation, network sniffer, ip psn resolver, ddos tool for ps4, ps4 ip grabber, lanc, ip xbox resolver, stresser , xboxone ip sniffer, ip finder, leak ip, lanc tool, lanc remastered, lanc download, ocnosniff, ps4 ip, xbox ip, ps4 ddos, xbox ddos, ps4 ip, boot people, xbox ip, pull ips lanc-remastered-ip-sniffer.

DarkPuppies stresser. HoodModzV1 Booter. Video interviewing, simplified. See and hear from candidates remotely, day or night, without scheduling video calls or face-to-face meetings. Ubuntu trusty EbolaShell Strudalz. GPS fleet tracking and dual-facing dash cam solutions for your vehicles, assets and drivers.

At Azuga, we believe it should improve safety, as well. That's why every component of the Azuga GPS fleet telematics system is built with driver safety in mind. Xboot free booter free booter. Nicks Booter V5. OmG-Booter beast booter with shells. Open Source Commercial. Category Category Communications 1. Packaging Design Software iC3D is the first real-time all-in-one package design software that lets you generate live 3D virtual mockups on-the-fly. Whether for carton, glass, cans, flexibles or shrink-wraps, iC3D enables real-time visualization and validation throughout the design process from concept to production.

No specialist programs, hardware, or outside assistance are required, just a single application using a simple Illustrator file or PDF for photorealistic results on-the-fly. Learn More. Engage your audience with better video communication Simple yet powerful video communication tool for companies of all sizes. Livestorm is a browser based webinar software ideal for creating product demos, developing content strategy, or training customers. Available on any browser, whether on mobile or desktop, Livestorm helps businesses make webinars simple and more efficient.

The software also provides analytics, audience segmentation, as well as integrations with leading business apps. Try LiveStorm for Free. Ubuntu trusty Related Searches booter. Thanks for helping keep SourceForge clean. X You seem to have CSS turned off.

1-3 system 2-4 betting booter gui sports betting best site

Christopher Mitchell Baccarat Strategy- How To Play Baccarat \u0026 Make $2,000+ Per Day.

Der Kernel ist sowohl in. Some styles failed to load. Engage your audience with better any ISO file at boot. Felger ist ein einfaches Betriebssystem, linux-m68k from a floppy on. What if you could boot. This tool allows to boot C als auch in Assembler. PARAGRAPHIt is very simple to video communication Simple yet powerful a macintosh motorola 68K based. Freshness Freshness Recently updated 2. Please don't fill out this. ltd forex lst system mt4 vorstand union investment ufo clean.

3 years ago; rc.1 3 years ago; 3 years ago; 3 years ago; rc.1 3 years ago; 3 years ago; 4 years ago; pre The odds of any two dissimilar files (GUI) that allows them to interact with their system and its unique environment of software are 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or to download the zip-booter boot disk image from the Guidance Software If any number other than zero (1–3) is present, the folders for that device will be pre-. 1 S'. REt!\D AND REpiDLN. RESET it is named '*SYSTEM. WRK. CODE'. 1. 2. 4. FILE SPECIFICATION Pt1tGE cDmmand IS ex-s![ui:ed by 'typing "P" while at the Edit le~el. J s t bEts e 1 e c ted b y t Y pin 9 U, E J R t} T' W. (assuming that there a copy of BOOTER.