Additionally, the NBA is the only one of the four major professional sports leagues of the United States in which home advantage in the playoffs is based strictly on regular-season record without regard to seeding. This led to unproven allegations of late-season tanking by the —06 Los Angeles Clippers in order to finish sixth instead of fifth in their conference; because of the league's playoff hosting rules, the Clippers would have home advantage in the 3—6 matchup but not the 4—5 matchup.
Following that season, the NBA changed its playoff format so that the best second-place team in each conference would be able to obtain up to the 2 seed should it have the second-best conference record. On occasion, a National Football League team has also been accused of throwing its final regular-season game in an attempt to "choose" its possible opponent in the subsequent playoffs.
An alleged example of this was when the San Francisco 49ers , who had clinched a playoff berth, lost their regular-season finale in to the Los Angeles Rams , thereby knocking the New York Giants who had defeated the 49ers in the playoffs in both and , also injuring 49er quarterback Joe Montana in the latter year's game out of the postseason on tiebreakers; after the game, Giants quarterback Phil Simms angrily accused the 49ers of "laying down like dogs.
It's also not uncommon for NFL teams to rest starting players in late-season games once their playoff positioning is assured, either by pulling them early in the game regardless of the score or placing them on the inactive list for that game.
This is done mainly to prevent injures to star players in meaningless games. However, this is not considered match fixing as the players that remain in the game are still trying their best to win, and more often than not the team that rests their starters ends up winning anyway. In the Canadian Football League , since the introduction of the cross-over rule , Western teams have been occasionally accused of tanking near the end of the season in situations where a loss would cause them to finish fourth place in their division and where such a finish was still good enough to secure a berth in the league's East Division playoffs.
In recent years, the East has often been viewed to be a weaker division than the West; however, if any Western team has actually attempted such a strategy up to and included the season , it has not paid significant dividends for them since Western cross-over teams have only won one Eastern playoff game and have never advanced to the Grey Cup championship game from the Eastern bracket.
A more recent example of possible tanking occurred in the ice hockey competition at the Winter Olympics. In Pool B, Sweden was to face Slovakia in the last pool match for both teams. Gustafsson would tell Swedish television "One is cholera , the other the plague. Sports Illustrated writer Michael Farber would say about this particular powerplay, "If the Swedes had passed the puck any more, their next opponent would have been the Washington Generals.
Canada would lose to Russia in a quarterfinal in the opposite bracket, while Sweden went on to win the gold medal, defeating the Czechs in the semifinals. The Tiger Cup — an international football tournament contested by countries in Southeast Asia — saw an example of two teams trying to lose a match.
The tournament was hosted by Vietnam , with the eight countries competing split into two groups of four. The top two in each group advanced to the semi-finals with the winners playing the runners-up of the other group. In the first group, Singapore finished on top with Vietnam finishing second; this meant that the winners of the second group would have to travel to Hanoi to play the host nation in the national stadium on their national day, while the runners-up would face Singapore in Ho Chi Minh City where the final group match was taking place.
As the two teams involved — Thailand and Indonesia — had both already qualified for the semi-finals, it was in their interest to lose the match and finish in second place. As the game progressed, neither side seemed particularly concerned with scoring, while the defending was lackadaisical.
As the match entered stoppage time, Indonesian defender Mursyid Effendi scored an own goal , overcoming the efforts of several Thai players and the goalkeeper to stop him. The Summer Olympics saw two examples of tanking of this type:. In February , two girls' basketball teams representing Nashville -area Riverdale and Smyrna High Schools were found to be tanking during a consolation match of their district tournament.
On the other hand, the practice of coaches on a playoff-bound team deliberately benching a team's best players for some or all of the final match es of the regular season is often defended as a common sense measure to avoid unnecessarily risking injuries and fatigue to the team's star players. Of course, when coaches elect to do this, they are not necessarily deliberately trying to lose. For example, during Euro the Czech Republic rested nearly all of its starters from the first two group matches for the final group match against Germany.
Since the Czechs had already clinched first place in the group, this move was seen to have the potential to allow Germany a better chance get the win they needed to advance at the expense of the winner of the Netherlands — Latvia game. As it happened, the Czechs' decision to field a "weaker" side did not matter since the Czechs won the match anyway to eliminate the Germans. Most top-level sports leagues in North America and Australia hold drafts to allocate young players to the league's teams.
The order in which teams select players is often the inverse of their standings in the previous season. As a result, a team may have a significant incentive to tank games to secure a higher pick in the league's next draft, and a number of leagues have changed their draft rules to remove or at least limit potential incentives to tank. From to , the NBA used a coin flip between the teams with the worst records in each of the league's two conferences to determine the recipient of the top pick.
As a result of this, the NBA established a draft lottery in advance of the draft , involving all teams that did not make the playoffs in the previous season. This lottery system prevented teams from receiving fixed draft positions based on record place, which the league hoped would discourage them from deliberately losing. Even though the lottery in place through the draft gave the team with the worst record only the same chance at the top pick as the 2nd and 3rd worst teams with that team guaranteed no worse than the fourth pick , there was still perceived incentive for a team to tank.
Responding to these perceived incentives, the NBA further tweaked its lottery rules shortly before the start of the —18 season. Effective with the draft, the teams with the three worst records have equal odds of landing the 1 pick barring one of these teams also owning another lottery team's pick , and the top four picks are allocated in the lottery instead of the top three. The Australian Football League , the main competition of Australian rules football , has used a system of priority draft picks since , with poorly performing teams receiving extra selections at or near the start of the draft.
Prior to , a team automatically received a priority pick if its win-loss record met pre-defined eligibility criteria. However, that system led to accusations of tanking by several clubs—most notably by Melbourne in the club was found not guilty, but the head coach and general manager were found guilty on related charges.
Since , priority picks are awarded at the discretion of the AFL Commission , the governing body of both the AFL and the overall sport. Until the —15 NHL season , the National Hockey League assured the last place team of at least the second position in its entry draft, with the first overall pick being subject to a draft lottery among the five worst teams.
As NHL drafts typically include only one NHL-ready prospect, if any at all, in any given year most others must continue developing in junior ice hockey or the minor leagues for several years before reaching the NHL , this rudimentary lottery has historically been enough of a deterrent to avoid deliberate tanking.
This was most prominent with the Buffalo Sabres , whose fans openly rooted against their team in the hopes they would clinch last place in the league for much of the season the Sabres themselves denied they were tanking and openly criticized their fans for suggesting the notion. NFL teams have been accused of tanking games to obtain a more favorable schedule the following season; this was especially true between and , when a team finishing last in a five-team division would get to play four of its eight non-division matches the next season against other last-place teams.
In the current scheduling formula which has been in place since , only two games in a schedule are based on a team's placement the previous season. Each team will play the same-placed teams based on the previous standings from two of the other divisions in its conference. The remaining eight non-division games are the same for all teams in a division. Since , separate scandals have erupted in prominent sports leagues in Portugal, [ dead link ]  Germany Bundesliga scandal , Brazil Brazilian football match-fixing scandal and the United States see Tim Donaghy scandal , all of which concerned referees who fixed matches for gamblers.
Many sports writers have speculated that in leagues with high player salaries, it is far more likely for a referee to become corrupt since their pay in such competitions is usually much less than that of the players. Sharkey boxing match, promoted as the Heavyweight Championship of the World. In the eighth round of a fight dominated by Fitzsimmons, Sharkey suddenly went down, clutching his groin, yelling foul.
Referee Earp conferred with both corners for a few seconds before he disqualified Fitzsimmons for a foul that virtually no one saw. Eight years later, Dr. Brookes Lee was arrested in Portland, Oregon. He had been accused of treating Sharkey to make it appear that he had been fouled by Fitzsimmons. Lee said, "I fixed Sharkey up to look as if he had been fouled.
Well, that is something I do not care to reveal, but I will assert that it was done—that is enough. There is no doubt that Fitzsimmons was entitled to the decision and did not foul Sharkey. Match fixing does not necessarily involve deliberately losing a match. Occasionally, teams have been accused of deliberately playing to a draw or a fixed score where this ensures some mutual benefit e. One of the earliest examples of this sort of match fixing in the modern era occurred in when Stoke City and Burnley intentionally drew in that year's final "test match" so as to ensure they were both in the First Division the next season.
In response, the Football League expanded the divisions to 18 teams that year, thus permitting the intended victims of the fix Newcastle United and Blackburn Rovers to remain in the First Division. The "test match" system was abandoned and replaced with automatic relegation. A West German victory by 1 or 2 goals would result in both teams advancing; any less and Germany was out; any more and Austria was out and replaced by Algeria , who had just beaten Chile.
West Germany attacked hard and scored after 10 minutes. Afterwards, the players then proceeded to just kick the ball around aimlessly for the remainder of the match. Algerian supporters were so angered that they waved banknotes at the players, while a German fan burned his German flag in disgust.
As a result, FIFA changed its tournament scheduling for subsequent World Cups so that the final pair of matches in each group are played simultaneously. Another example took place on the next-to-last weekend of the —93 Serie A season. Milan entered their match with Brescia needing only a point to secure the title ahead of crosstown rivals Inter , while Brescia believed a point would be enough for them to avoid relegation.
In a retrospective on the "dodgiest games" in football history, two British journalists said about the match, "For over 80 minutes, the two teams engaged in a shameful game of cat-and-mouse, in which the cat appeared to have fallen asleep and the mouse was on tranquilisers.
The 1—1 draw gave Milan their title, but in the end did not help Brescia; other results went against them and they suffered the drop. In knockout competitions where the rules require drawn matches to be replayed , teams have sometimes been accused of intentionally playing one or more draws so as to ensure a replay s.
In this case, the motive is usually financial since the ensuing replay s would typically be expected to generate additional revenue for the participating teams. One notorious example of this particular type of alleged fix was the Scottish Cup Final , which sparked a riot after being played twice to a draw. A team may deliberately lose a match, giving a victory to the opposite team that damages a third-party rival.
A notable event happened in Seville , Spain , in the La Liga. Sevilla FC were last and officially relegated by the 35th out of 38 on match day. Sevilla faced Real Oviedo , who won the match Oviedo were fighting to avoid relegation and their victory would put Sevilla's fierce cross-town rival , Real Betis , in relegation positions. Sevilla performed poorly, while their fans showed support for Oviedo and worry for missed chances by the Asturian squad.
Due to this Sevilla's loss, Betis were relegated too. In addition to the aforementioned incidents of alleged fixing of drawn matches to ensure replays, mutual fixes have sometimes been alleged in "best of X" knockout series where draws are either not possible or very uncommon. Early versions of baseball's World Series were a common target of such allegations. Because the players received a percentage of the gate receipts for postseason games a privilege they did not enjoy in the regular season , there was a perception that the players had an incentive to fix an equal number of early games in favor of each team so as to ensure the series would run the maximum number of games or very close thereto.
Partly as an effort to avoid this sort of controversy, early World Series sometimes saw all scheduled games played even if the Series winner was already determined. That did not prove satisfactory since few fans were willing to pay to watch lame duck contests.
Eventually, following the controversy at the conclusion of the season in which the New York Giants boycotted the World Series in part because of dissatisfaction with the financial arrangements surrounding the Series, Major League Baseball agreed to a number of reforms proposed by Giants owner John T. Among other things, the so-called "Brush Rules" stipulated that the players would only receive a share of ticket revenue from the first four games, thus eliminating any financial incentive for the players to deliberately prolong the World Series.
On several occasions, "creative" use of tie-breaking rules have allegedly led teams to play less than their best. An example occurred in the European Football Championship. Unlike FIFA , UEFA takes the result of the game between the two tied teams or in a three-way tie, the overall records of the games played with the teams in question only into consideration before overall goal difference when ranking teams level on points, a situation arose in Group C where Sweden and Denmark played to a 2—2 draw, which was a sufficiently high scoreline to eliminate Italy which had lower-scoring draws with the Swedes and Danes regardless of Italy's result with already-eliminated Bulgaria.
Although Italy beat Bulgaria by only one goal to finish level with Sweden and Denmark on five points and would hypothetically have been eliminated using the FIFA tie-breaker too, some Italian fans bitterly contended that the FIFA tie-breaker would have motivated their team to play harder and deterred their Scandinavian rivals from, in their view, at the very least half-heartedly playing out the match after the score became 2—2.
The same situation happened to Italy in , leading to many pre-game complaints from Italy, who many commentators suggested were right to be concerned because of their own extensive experience in this area. The FIFA tie-breaker, or any goal-differential scheme, can cause problems, too.
There have been incidents especially in basketball where players on a favored team have won the game but deliberately ensured the quoted point spread was not covered see point shaving. Conversely, there are cases where a team not only lost which might be honest but lost by some large amount, perhaps to ensure a point spread was covered, or to grant some non-gambling related favor to the victor. Argentina needed a four-goal victory to advance over Brazil, a large margin at this level of competition.
Yet Argentina won 6—0. Much was made over political collusion,    that the Peruvian goalkeeper was born in Argentina, and that Peru was dependent on Argentinian grain shipments, but nothing was ever proven. Proponents of the UEFA tie-breaker argue that it reduces the value of blow-outs , whether these be the result of a much stronger team running up the score or an already-eliminated side allowing an unusually large number of goals.
Perhaps the most infamous incident occurred in December when Spain , needing to win by eleven goals to qualify for the Euro ahead of the Netherlands , defeated Malta by a score of 12—1 on the strength of nine second half goals.
Especially in international football , such lopsided results are seen as unsavoury, even if they are honest. If anything, these incidents serves as evidence that the FIFA tie-breaker can cause incentives to perpetrate a fix in some circumstances, the UEFA tie-breaker in others.
Tie-breaking rules played the central role in one of cricket 's more notorious matches. Going into that match, Somerset led their group with three wins from three matches, but would end in a three-way tie for the top spot if they lost to Worcestershire and Glamorgan defeated the then-winless Minor Counties South.
In that event, the tie-breaker would be bowling strike rate. The Somerset players calculated that a large enough loss could see them miss the quarter-finals. Accordingly, Somerset captain Brian Rose determined that if Somerset batted first and declared their innings closed after one over, they would protect their strike rate advantage, assuring advancement to the quarter-finals.
When Somerset won the toss, Rose implemented the plan, batting in the first partnership and declaring at the close of the first over after Somerset scored only one run on a no-ball. Worcestershire won during their second over. Rose's strategy, although not against the letter of the rules, was condemned by media and cricket officials, and the Test and County Cricket Board predecessor to the current England and Wales Cricket Board voted to expel Somerset from that season's competition.
A player can concede with the understanding that the opponent will share the prize equally with him or her. Depending on the game, this can lead to disqualification. On occasion, teams tank games as a protest against actions in earlier games. The most lopsided professional football match in history, AS Adema —0 SO l'Emyrne , was a result of SO l'Emyrne intentionally losing the game in protest against the referee's action in a previous game.
Bookmakers in the early 21st century accept bets on a far wider range of sports-related propositions than ever before. Fixing the result of a more-particular proposition might be seen as less likely to be noticed. For example, the disgraced former National Basketball Association referee Tim Donaghy has been alleged to have perpetrated some of his fixes by calling games in such a manner as to ensure more points than expected were scored by both teams, thus affecting " over-under " bets on the games whilst also ensuring that Donaghy at least did not look to be outright biased.
Also, bets are increasingly being taken on individual performances in team sporting events, which, in turn, has seen the rise of a phenomenon known as spot fixing although it is now unlikely that enough is bet on average players to allow someone to place a substantial wager on them without being noticed. One such attempt was described by retired footballer Matthew Le Tissier , who in admitted that while he was playing with Southampton FC back in , he tried and failed to kick the ball out of play right after the kick-off of a Premier League match against Wimbledon FC so that a group of associates would collect on a wager made on an early throw-in.
Similarly, in , Pakistani cricket players were accused of committing specific no-ball penalties for the benefit of gamblers. Following investigations by the News of the World and Scotland Yard, on 1 November , Majeed, Pakistan's captain, Salman Butt , Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Amir were found guilty of conspiracy to cheat at gambling and to accept corrupt payments. Whenever any serious motivation for teams to manipulate results becomes apparent to the general public, there can be a corresponding effect on betting markets as honest gamblers speculate in good faith as to the chance such a fix might be attempted.
Some bettors might choose to avoid wagering on such a fixture while others will be motivated to wager on it, or alter the bet they would otherwise place. Such actions will invariably affect odds and point spreads even if there is no contact whatsoever between teams and the relevant gambling interests.
The rise of betting exchanges has allowed such speculation to play out in real time. Since gambling pre-dates recorded history it comes as little surprise that evidence of match fixing is found throughout recorded history.
The ancient Olympic Games were almost constantly dealing with allegations of athletes accepting bribes to lose a competition  and city-states which often tried to manipulate the outcome with large amounts of money. These activities went on despite the oath each athlete took to protect the integrity of the events and the severe punishment sometimes inflicted on those who were caught.
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Jackson, J. Police investigating basketball coach over match-fixing allegations. Kim, R. Incheon United goalkeeper dies. The Korea Times. Footballer kills himself over match fixing scandal. Accessed 17 May Kim, J. UK Reuters. Accessed 30 May Portuguese fight against match-fixing: Which policies and what ethic? Journal of Global Sport Management, 4 1 , 79— Too big to jail: Match-fixing, institutional failure, and the shifting of responsibility.
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Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law, 22 1 , 3— Boniface, P. Paris: Armand Colin. The problems and causes of match-fixing: Are legal sports betting regimes to blame? Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 4 1 , 73— Seo, H. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 51 4 , 45— BBC Sport , September, Le Tissier in failed betting scam. Betting and the integrity of Sport. Kim, S. A former K-league player reveals all kinds of match-fixing cases in professional football games.
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Sport, Education, and Society, 25 1 , Song, J. Accessed 5 June Lee, J. A widespread football match-fixings… another 63 players caught. Korea Economic Daily. Accessed 5 Jun Kim, M. Now even baseball and basketball Seoul Newspaper , p. Park, Y. Why is the pro-soccer match-fixing widespread? Complex action. Munhwa Ilbo , p. Powell, W. The transformation of organizational forms: How useful is organization theory in accounting for social change?
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The internet has made it possible for data regarding even low-level tennis matches to be streamed to betting sites at near instantaneous speed. Match fixing is a broad term that incorporates a number of different activities that result in the manipulation of some aspect of a game, including the end result. As match-fixing can include:. Point shaving is often used as a means of approaching impressionable match-fixing marks, because in a point-shaving scheme, the objective of the fix is to lose by less than the point-spread not to lose the game itself.
Tanking in the match-fixing context is generally described as a player or team intentionally putting in a sub-par effort. Though tanking sounds sinister in nature, it can sometimes be advantageous for players depending on tournament structures.
This quirk was the case at the Summer Olympics when eight badminton players were disqualified for tanking. Spot fixing occurs when a player seeks to manipulate a specific event in a sporting event. This type of fixing has frequently been linked to various popular, but often insignificant events within a game, in-play betting opportunities can make spot-fixing lucrative and often difficult to detect. Gambling-related match fixing occurs where an individual or group seeks to manipulate a result in order to win a wager themselves or to assist others to win a wager.
This type of behavior can have a significant cost for not only books, but for honest bettors who are not in on the fix. Non-gambling related fixing can occur for a variety of reasons. Often tournament structures, or tournament schedules may incentivize a player to reduce effort in order to receive a more favorable match-up at a later time or obtain additional rest before a more lucrative tournament in coming days.
Declan Hill , of th e University of Wuerzberg, is likely the foremost academic expert on match fixing, having spent time around various match-fixing operations while earning his Ph. Hill found that match-fixing seems to flourish under three very specific conditions. While it remains to be seen how much of the illegal gambling market will be swallowed by the disinfecting sunshine of legalization, at present there is a vast illegal betting market with a value in even the most bearish estimates in the tens of billions.
Of course, the outlier is the NCAA, who does not allow for direct compensation beyond tuition and grants in aid. The torch is in your hands. Integrity levy Richard H. McLaren, the Canadian lawyer who headed the game-changing WADA investigation into Russian doping, pointed out that major professional leagues had initially opposed sports betting. The idea that all professional athletes earn high incomes is a myth, he said.
In tennis, for example, less than four percent of male pro players break even. They are very sophisticated. They need sophisticated systems in place to avoid detection. For many years, journalist and integrity fighter Anas Aremeyaw Anas has battled against corruption in his native Ghana and beyond. Today, he has so many enemies that he conceals his face when appearing in public. Along with his team, Tiger Eye P. I, Anas recently steered a far-reaching covert investigation that ended the reign of former Ghana Football Association President Kwesi Nyantakyi.
Formerly the second most powerful man in African football, Nyantakyi was caught on camera taking a bribe and was handed a lifetime ban. Numerous other referees and officials have also been banned as a direct result of the activities of Anas and Tiger Eye.
Success, however, was marred by tragedy in January when team member Ahmed Husein was shot dead in Accra. It was real. There are mafias out there. My team and I had to be very careful to ensure that the bad guys did not get to us. Unfortunately one of my guys was not so lucky. Because when you hand out money, you have a responsibility to ensure that the right mechanisms are in place to distribute it.
But FIFA did nothing to check that this was happening. Conferences like Play the Game, Anas said, are highly significant. Michael Bahrs, Detective Chief Superintendent of Bochum Police, has spent eighteen years fighting organised crime, and ten fighting match-fixing.
He has interviewed some of the biggest match-fixers on the planet. So what has he learned? They are creating more and more competitions. The federations should do their utmost to protect their players. They should warn them that they are absolutely at risk.
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